A Dictionary of the Fuchsia
Want to know what those mysterious terms mean and just who the people were behind those names? Then this is the place for you.
Want to know what those mysterious terms mean and just who the people were behind those names? Then this is the place for you.
The Dictionary of the Fuchsia started out as a glossary to help with the unfamiliar, as well as the familiar. While I've been dealing with calyxes and corollas long enough, it occurred to me that many visitors to the website, especially those new to fuchsias, might appreciate a clue. Over time, more and more definitions, as well as important entries such as short biographies, were added as I kept realizing other things and places and people fuchsia that begged to be included. The fuchsia world may not date back to the ancient Greeks or Egyptians but it's still managed to become a wide and interesting one since its first flowering in the Ages of Exploration and Reason. At some point, I had to admit that the entries were bursting out of the glossary format and the Dictionary of the Fuchsia was born. I hope you find it helpful. Botanical Latin terms, as used in species epithets, are given in the grammatical form appropriate to Fuchsia. (See also ➤ Site guide)
- A - BAbrupta – Broken off; ending abruptly or suddenly. See F. abrupta (Johnson 1925) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. aspiazui (J.F.Macbr. 1941) is a synonym of this species.
(Illustration: Herbarium sheet of F. abrupta in the collection of the Field Musueum, Chicago.)
Acuminate – Leaves that gradually narrow or taper to a long point at the apex.
Acute – Leaves in which the sides meet at the apex, base, or at both ends, in a pointed, acute angle of less than ninety degrees.
Acynifolia – Acinifolia; having leaves resembling those of the basil plant, Ocinum basilicum. F. acynifolia (Scheidw. 1847) is a synonym of F. encliandra (Zucc., Steud. 1840) in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Adaxial – The side that's near, towards or adjacent to the axis or central line, such as the stalk of a plant, and often referring to being on the upper side.
Adnate – Two differing parts of a plant that are fused or linked together.
Appressed – Closely flattened or pressed on the surface. For example, appressed hairs on a leaf.Adpressipilis – With adpressed, or flattened, hairs. F. adpressipilis (Steyerm. 1952) is a synonym of F. nigricans (Linden ex Planch. 1849) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Detail of leaves in a dried botanical specimen of F. nigricans.}
Affinis – Related; similar; neighboring; allied to; kindred. F. affinis (Cambess 1830) is a synonym of F. regia ssp. serrae (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Adventitious – Developing from or in an unusual place on a plant. For example, fuchsias will occasionally develop adventitious roots from the stalks of leaves. See also Internodal Rooting.
Agamospermy – The asexual production of seeds from an ovule (see also).Aiton, William Townsend (1731-1793) – British botanist born in Scotland where he received his early training as a gardener. Aiton came to London in 1754 to become the assistant to Philip Miller at the Chelsea Physic Garden (See Miller). Aiton was appointed director of the newly established botanical garden at Kew in 1759, where he remained until his death. In 1789, he published the Hortus Kewensis,a catalogue of plants growing at Kew, in which a fuchsia is listed. Called F. coccinea, there's obviously some confusion with F. magellanica since reference is made to Feuillée's Thilco (1714) and it's noted as "Native of Chili. Introd. 1788, Captain Firth." F. coccinea is actually native to the campos de altitude in the mountains of Minas Gerais in Brazil. (See also Firth). Just a little earlier in France in 1788, Lamarck published the real F. magellanica from a collection in his herbarium taken by Philibert Cammerson in the Straights of Magellan in 1768. To add to the puzzle, that bad boy of British botany, Richard Salisbury (1761-1829), renamed the Kew specimen F. elegans in his Icones Stirpium Rariores in 1797 and stated that it had been introduced by "Domingo Vandelli," the Italian botanist working in Portugal (see also). Whatever the mystery's solution, preserved specimens taken from the actual plant soon after it was introduced at Kew are indeed the actual species recognized today as F. coccinea.
(Illustrations: 1. Portrait of Aiton; 2. Entry for F. coccinea from the Hortus Kewensis, 1789.)Alba – White. A very pale-flowered selection of F. magellanica was described as F. magellanica var. alba (Clarence Elliot 1932). This designation, however, no longer has any taxonomic status as F. magellanica is considered a variable species, in both color and form, throughout the whole of its extensive native range and occasionally even very pale-flowered individuals are found mixed in everywhere. No subspecies or variations are currently scientifically recognized. Garden selections taken from any of these very pale individual plants therefore should now only be written as F. magellanica 'Alba.' F. magellanica 'Eburnea' (Pisano 1979) and 'Molinae' (Espinoza 1929) are also considered to be based on other pale-flowered selections that are the same, or so close to the same as 'Alba,' as to be synonyms. F. corymbiflora var. alba (Harrison 1849) is a synonym of F. boliviana 'Alba.' It appears to be a white-tubed mutation and is found only in cultivation or naturalized in areas where it has escaped from cultivation.
(Illustration: A very pale-flowered selection of F. magellanica variously called 'Alba', Ebrunea' or 'Molinae'. These names are all considered synonyms.)Aljaba – Common name for the fuchsia, especially F. magellanica, in some Spanish-speaking areas. Literally "quiver," in reference to the way in which the pistil and stamens (stamina) extrude from within the corolla of the flower. See also Chilco, Corales, Coralitos, Pendientes de la Reina.
(Illustration: Quivers and Hunting Horns, engraving on paper, Wenceslaus (Wenzel) Hollar (1607-1677).
Allopolyploid – Polyploidy resulting when chromosomes are multiplied after two different species hybridize. See also Autopolyploid, Polyploid.
Allopatric – Not occurring in the same area and therefore geographically isolated and not able to interbreed. Subspecies of F. regia, for example, are often allopatric.Alpestris – From the lower mountains. See F. alpestris (Gardner 1843) in ➤ Section Quelusia. F. integrifolia var. mollis (E.H.L.Krause 1906, Munz 1943), F. mollis (E.H.L.Krause 1906) and F. regia var. alpestris (Gardner 1843, Munz 1943) are all synonyms of F. alpestris.
(Illustration: Botanical drawing of F. alpestris. Miss [Amelia Matilda] Murray (1795-1884), Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, vol. 69, [Ser. 2, Vol. 16], t. 3999, 1843. Interestingly, Murray was Maid of Honor to Queen Victoria from 1837-1856, and later again served as an extra Woman of the Bed Chamber. While she remained close to the Queen, she resigned from her formal position at court to publish an account of her travels in 1856, Letters from the United States, Cuba and Canada, due to their often political content and views.)
Alternate – Leaves that are arranged along a stem in a staggered order from side to side. See also Opposite.American Fuchsia Society – The American Fuchsia Society (AFS) was founded in California in 1929, making it the world's first and oldest fuchsia society. Among the original eleven founding members were such names as Harry Ashland "Tin Can" Greene (prominent financier and developer, as well as one of the first known American fuchsia hybridizers, and Honorary President), Alice Eastwood (curator of botany at the California Academy of Science), William F. Ewing (assistant superintendent of Oakland schools), George Budges (Berkeley Horticultural Nursery), Sidney B. Mitchell (head of the School of Librarianship at the University of California at Berkeley), H.W. Shepard (director of collections at the University of Californiaat Berkeley), Kate O. Sessions (botanist, horticulturalist and the celebrated "Mother of Balboa Park" in San Diego), and Hugh Evans (prominent horticulturalist in Los Angeles). Almost immediately, a census and collection of fuchsias growing in California gardens and nurseries was undertaken under the scientific leadership of Alice Eastwood. Armed with that list on a nine-month trip to visit gardens in Europe, Sidney Mitchell arranged for fifty-one new fuchsia cultivars to be shipped from England. Well prepared, forty-eight survived the long journey and were doled out to Society members and nurseries. These new plants, along with the about ninety-one cultivars already established in California gardens, would form the basis of an amazing flourish of fuchsia cultivars to emerge from California starting in the Thirties. The AFS Registration Service was started in 1954 to help avoid duplicate names, with Victor Reiter's 'Mantilla' (1948) being the first registration. The Society publishes the AFS Bulletin quarterly. Since 1967, the AFS has also been the International Registration Authority for fuchsia cultivars for the International Society of Horticultural Science.
(Illustration: The Fuchsia Book, American Fuchsia Society, 1948.)
Amoena – Delightful. F. amoena (De Candolle 1828) is a synonym of F. arborescens (SIms 1826) in ➤ Section Schufia.
Ampliata – Ampliate; widened or enlarged. Funnelform. See F. ampliata (Bentham 1845) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.
Ancient Society of York Florists – Founded in 1768, the Ancient Society of York Florists is the oldest formally organized horticultural society in the world. The "florists" in its title preserves the original meaning of the word, amateurs who grew flowers for their beauty, and does not refer to the professional tradesmen or shopkeepers selling cut flowers or plants of today. At its inception, only six kinds of flowers were exhibited but later in the nineteenth century other newly introduced and popular flowers, such as chrysanthemums and fuchsias, were added to the roster of its shows often years before they had specialist societies of their own.André, Édouard (1840-1911) – Édouard André was a noted French horticulturalist and one of the most prominent and celebrated European landscape designers of the second half of the 19th century. Born in Bourges into a modest family of nurserymen, he received his early training and invaluable gardening experience at his father’s side. André was quite the prodigy, however. By 1860, at the age of only twenty, he was in Paris where he worked with such luminaries of the Second Empire as Adolphe Alphand (1817-1891), Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps (1824-1873) and Baron Georges Hausmann (1819-1891) on the grand redesign of the city’s boulevards and parks which today still defines the city's look and feel. Among the many projects were the design and plantings of such quintessential Parisian spaces such as the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont and the Tuileries Gardens. Eventually he was Jardinier principal in the Service des Promenades et Plantations de la Ville de Paris, a position he held for eight years. Other projects in France included the Champ de Mars in Montpellier, the Public Garden in Cognac and the world’s largest rose garden at L’Haÿ-les-Roses.In 1866 André won the competition to design Sefton Park for the City of Liverpool. This was to be his first great international commission and launched an illustrious career that stretched across Europe. Over the course of his life, André would design many prominent public and private landscape parks such as the Euxinograd Royal Palace in Bulgaria, Luxemburg Castle in Luxemburg, Funchal on Madeira, Weldham Castle in Markelo in the Netherlands and the Villa Borghese gardens in Rome, among many others. For the Polish-Lithuanian Count Feliks Tyszkiewicz, André designed no less than four separate gardens at four palaces in Lithuania. What is now the Palanga Botanical Park, at the Tyszkiewicz Palace on the Baltic Coast, is still considered to be one of the most beautiful parks in that country.André’s landscape work was known for the incorporation of artificial grottoes, mountain-style stone structures, bridges, lakes and waterfalls, and the use of panoramic views. His aesthetic is summed in his book, Traité général de la composition des parcs et jardins (1879) and was spread even wider through his position as third Professor of the Art of Gardens at the National School of Horticulture at Versailles (Est. 1874). Through his student, Charles (Carlos) Thays (1849-1934), who went to Buenos Aires in 1889, André’s influence is felt in the distinctive French-style of tree-lined boulevards and public parks that are now the hallmark of that city. In 1870, André succeeded Charles Antoine Lemaire (1800-1871) as editor of L'Illustration Horticole, a position he held for over twenty years. His own naturalistically styled garden, covering a mere two hectares of property he purchased at La-Croix-en-Touraine in 1871, is now also open to the public and is one of France’s Monuments historiques.In 1875-76, André undertook a botanizing and collecting expedition into the Andean foothills to explore northern South America at the behest of the French government. He journeyed south from Colombia, through Ecuador, and on into Peru. Along with many scientific specimens, including a new fuchsia that was to be described in his honor, the trip produced numerous hardy and tender plants that were new to European cultivation. Unfortunately for André, while the French government asked him to go, they didn't actually pay for him to go; he recouped expenses by selling collections to the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew. There is also evidence that a number of André's specimens were actually collected on commission for him by plant hunters such as the Belgian, Hugo Poortman (1858-1953), who seems to have collected F. scherffiana for him much further south in the Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe Provinces of Ecuador than André himself visited. However, this doesn't seem to be the case with another of André's fuchsia collections, F. vulcanica, as André passed directly through the Chimborazo province, home of the mighty Chimborazo volcano, to which it's native (see Vulcanica). Especially interested in bromeliads, André published his collections of this family as Bromeliaceae Andreanae. Description et Histoire des Bromeliacées récoltées dans la Colombie, l'Ecuador et la Venezuela.
See F. andrei in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustrations: 1. Portrait of Édouard André, ca.1880; 2. André's plan of Sefton Park, Liverpool, 1866; 3. André in Traveling Attire, Émile Bayard, about 1880; 4. Exploration dans l'Amérique du Sud par Édouard André, Carte des divisions politique de républiques de la Colombie et de l'Équateur. Édouard André, “L’Amérique Équinoxiale (Colombie – Équateur – Pérou),” Le Tour du Monde, 1877.)
Andrei – Named in honor of Édouard François André (1840-1911). See: André; F. andrei (Johnston 1925) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. osgoodii (J.F.Macbr. 1941) and F. ovalis var. aberrans (J.F.Macbr. 1941) are both synonyms of this species.
Angiosperms – Flowering plants; the group of plants characterized by having ovules enclosed in an ovary.
Annular – In the shape of an annulus or ring; ring shaped; ringed; forming a ring.
Anthesis – The period at which a flower is fully opened and has become fully functional.
Anther – The sac-like part of the stamen where pollen is produced. It is located at the end of the filament.
Anthocyanins – A group of pigments in flowers that give them their blue or red colors.
Anthropophily – Pollination by man.Apetala – Without petals, lacking petals. See F. apetala (Ruiz & Pavon 1802) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella. F. hirsuta (Hemsl. 1876), F. macrantha (Hook. 1846) and F. unduavensis (Munz 1943) are all synonyms of this species.
(Illustration: F. apetala labeled as F. macrantha. Paxton's Magazine of Botany, 1850.)
Apetalous – Without petals, lacking petals Fuchsias in the ➤ Hemsleyella section of the genus all have this lacking characteristic.
Apex – The tip a leaf, petal or similar part of a plant opposite to the end to where it's attached. For example, the apex of a leaf.
Apical – Connected with the apex, i.e. at the tip; at the growing tip of the plant's stem or roots, in comparison with intercalary growth that occurs between areas of a plant's permanent tissue. For example, an apical bud.
Apiculata – Apiculate; leaves that have a short, sharply pointed tip. F. apiculata (I.M. Johnston 1925) is a synonym of F. loxensis (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Aphids – Various Aphis species can do damage to fuchsias with their feeding, especially at the tips of branches, or can encourage the growth of diseases developing on their sugary secretions. A number of low-key organic methods, including lady bugs or even simple sprays of water, are often very effective. Additionally, chemical controls might be used.
Apomixy – Asexual reproduction; reproduction without fertilization, meiosis, or the production of gametes.
Aprica – Sun loving. F. aprica (Lundell 1940) is a synonym of F. microphylla subsp. aprica (Lundell Breedlove 1969), as is F. microphylla var. aprica (Lundell Munz 1943), in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Aquaviridis – Neo-Latin coinage meaning green waters. Named in honor of Dave Green and Eileen Waters (Berry 2007), two British fuchsia growers and amateur plant hunters in South America, who first collected the novel species growing in the Parque Nacional Podocarpus of Ecuador. See F. aquaviridis in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded. See also Green.
Illustration: Detail from a dried specimen of F. aquaviridis preserved at the Botanical Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark.)
Araucana – Named for the native Arauco (Mapuche) people of southern Chile. F. araucana (F.Phil 1876) is a synonym of F.magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Arete, Aretillo – Primarily Mexican common name for the fuchsia. Literally "earring" and "little earring" and alluding to another common name for the fuchsia in Spanish, Pendientes de la Reina.
Arborea – Tree-like. F. arborea (Sessé & Moç. 1888) is a synonym of F. arborescens (Sims 1826) in ➤ Section Schufia.Arborescens – Tree-like. Because both bear flowers in similar lilac-like panicles, F. arborescens is often confused with its close relative, F. paniculata. However, it ultimately forms a larger shrub or small tree growing to roughly twice the size of the later. Its leaves are also generally larger with a smooth surface and an entire margin. F. paniculata, on the other hand, forms a smaller shrub with more variably shaped leaves that have a ridged surface and margins that are distinctively minutely to coarsely serrated. There are also other tell-tale differences in the flowers as well. The flower buds of F. arborescens, for example, are generally larger, broader and more blunted towards the tips than the comparatively longer, narrower ones of F. paniculata. See F. arborescens (Sims 1826) in ➤ Section Schufia. F. amoena (de Candolle 1828), F. arborea (Sessé & Moç. 1888), F. arborescens var. arborescens, F. arborescens var. typica (Munz 1943), F. arborescens var. syringiflora (Lem. 1848) and F. syringiflora (Carrière 1873) are all synonyms of F. arborescens. F. arborescens var. megalantha, (Donn.Sm 1893), F. arborescens f. parva (Munz 1943) and F. arborescens f. tenuis (Munz 1943) are all synonyms of F. paniculata (Lindl. 1856)(Illustration: 1. Trunks and stems of F. arborescens. The leaves in the background of these arching stems are from another adjacent shrub. 2. Leaves and flowers of F. arborescens.)
Arborescent – Tree-like. See Aborescens.
Asperifolia – Rough-leaved. F. asperifolia (Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. pilosa (Fielding & Gardner 1844) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Aspiazu, Dr. Rufino (1912-201?) – Distinguished physician and surgeon in Lima, Peru, as well as an ardent amateur botanist and plant collector, who often provided invaluable assistance to botanical expeditions his country. F. aspiazui (Macbride 1941) is synonymous with F. abrupta (Johnston 1925). See F. abrupta in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Aspiazui – Named in honor of Dr. Rufino Aspiazu (1912-201?). F. aspiazui (Macbride 1941) is a synonym of F. abrupta (Johnston 1925). See: Aspiazu; F. abrupta in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Asplund, Erik (1888-1974) – Swedish botanist who collected and studied Andean plants. After his early studies, Asplund was appointed associate professor of botany at Uppsala University from 1921-25. He then entered the Department of Botany at the Swedish Museum of Natural History as an assistant in 1927, where he was promoted to curator in 1933, a position he held until his retirement there in 1953. Asplund was appointed Professor in 1957. While he did undertake several research expeditions within his native country and was noted as an expert on Nordic vascular plants, Asplund's major focus was to be on the flora and vegetation of South America. His first major field trip was to Bolivia already in 1920-21, at which time he also collected in Chile, Venezuela, Panama and Brazil. Asplund returned to collect in Ecuador, Peru and Colombia from 1939-40. He undertook a third expedition to Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela in 1955-56. His collections, noted for their meticulous preparation, are today preserved in the Regnellian Herbarium at the Swedish Museum of Natural History. F. asplundii (Macbride 1941) was named in his honor but is now synonymous with F. ayavacensis (Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823). There are, however, well over sixty species of other plants that still hold his name in some form and two full genera, Asplundia (Cyclanthaceae) and Asplundianthus (Asteraceae), are named for him as well. See F. ayavacensis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Asplundii – Named in honor Erik Asplund (1888-1974). Fuchsia asplundii (J.F.Macbr. 1941) s a synonym of F. ayavacensis (Kunth 1823). See: Asplund; F. ayavacensis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Atrorubra – Dark red. F. atrorubra (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is a synonym of F. nigricans (Linden ex Planch. 1849) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Attenuate – Leaves that gradually taper at the base into a petiole-like extensions.Aubergine Hybrids – Fuchsias with various eggplant-purple or brownish-purple tones in the flowers, called aubergine hybrids, started being released in the middle of the 1980's. The break-through species cross, 'Whiteknight's Amethyst,' was hybridized by John Wright in England in 1980 from F. magellanica 'Molinae' (a.k.a. 'Alba') x F. excorticata. This cross was subsequently used in producing many of the later aubergine hybrids, especially by hybridizers in the Netherlands. Among these new releases are Herman de Graff's 'Aubergine' and Haute Cuisine.' In its own right, 'Whiteknight's Amethyst' additionally exhibits beautiful blue pollen and is hardy in many gardens.
(Illustration: Fuchsia 'Whiteknight's Amethyst.')
Auculops fuchsiae – See Fuchsia Gall Mite.
Austromontana – From the southern mountains. See F. austromontana in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.Australian Fuchsia – Occasionally seem common descriptive name for Correa reflexa or C. pulcella, which are also sometimes called the "Native Fuchsia" in Australlia. See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
(Illustration: Correa pulcella drawn by M. Hart from Edwards’s Botanical Register, 1829, vol. 15: t. 1224.)
Author – In botany, specifically the first person to validly publish a new taxon.
Author Citation – Refers to the person (or persons) who first validly published a botanical name fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, or ICBN (see also). It's customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate authors' names according to the recognized list of standard abbreviations. In those cases where a species is no longer in the genus of its original placement, such as a new combination of a genus with the specific epithet, both the author of the original genus placement and the author of the new combination are often given, with the former name being placed within parentheses. The ➤ International Plant Names Index maintains a list authors' names and their standard abbreviations.
Autogamy – Self fertilization.
Autopolyploid, Autoployploidy – Polyploidy (see also) resulting when chromosomes are multiplied within a single species.
Auxins – Plant hormones or growth substances that play an important role in coordinating many processes during the plant's life cycle and are essential for its development.
Axil – The inside junction of the leaf and stem. New shoots or flowers develop from buds inside this joint.Axillary – Within or from the leaf axil.
Ayavacensis – From Ayabaca Province in Peru. See F. ayavacensis (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. asplundii (J.F.Macbr. 1941) and F. townsendii (I.M.Johnst. 1925) are both synonyms of this species.
(Illustration: Detail from a specimen sheet of ➤ F. ayavacensis preserved at the Missouri Botanical Garden.)
Bacillaris – Rod-shaped; resembling a small staff or wand, from the Latin diminutive of baculus, a staff or walking stick. F. x bacillaris (Lindl. 1832) is now considered to be a natural hybrid between Fuchsia microphylla subsp. microphylla and Fuchsia thymifolia subsp. thymifolia. See in ➤ Section Encliandra. Brebissonia bacillaire (Spach 1835) and F. × cinnabarina (D.C.McClint. 1950) are both synonyms of this hybrid.
Backcross – In hybridizing, re-crossing a plant with one its parents.
Banks, Edward (1820-1910) – Early English hybridizer who produced some 111 cultivars at his nursery in Deal in Kent. Among his enduring introductions were 'Arabella.' 'Forget-me-not' and 'Rose of Castile.'Banks, Sir Joseph (1743-1820) – British naturalist who accompanied James Cook on the HMS Endeavor's great exploratory voyage around the world from 1768-1771. While Cook mapped the coast of New Zealand, Banks and his assistant Daniel Solander did extensive botanizing along its rivers and shores. They were the first to discover F. excorticata at Anaura Bay in November 1769. (Agapanthus calciflorous had been provisionally penciled in on the back of their manuscript drawing but the name was never validly published and Forster & Forster (see also) would actually be the first to describe it.) Previously, in the middle of January 1768, while the ship waited for favorable weather to pass into the Pacific and the crew took on wood and fresh water, Banks undertook a plant hunting expedition along the shore at Cape Horn. Unfortunately, Banks was forced to withdraw by a heavy snowstorm, in which two African servants died ofexposure after stealing the rum supply, and return to ship. F. magellanica, however, does not seem to be among the hundreds of plants collected before the cold and snow put an abrupt end to his explorations. In later life Banks became a leading patron of the natural sciences and had a close relationship with George III, serving as a sort of botanical minister to develop economical uses for plants in Britain, as well as in its territories around the world. Based at Kew after 1773, he assumed, in his own words, "a kind of superintendence" for the gardens and was largely responsible for establishing Kew's leading position around the world. In fact, Banks was often such as enthusiastic supporter that he frequently couldn't wait for the gardeners to move new arrivals; he's said to have triumphantly carried the first fuchsia (see also Aiton) to the greenhouse on his head. He was created a baronet in 1781.
(Illustrations: F. excorticata from Banks' Florilegium; Detail of Banks (standing) and Solander (seated) from a painting by William Parry, about 1775-76.)
Barclayana – F. barclayana (A.Cels & J.F.Cels 1837) is not a currently accepted species and remains unresolved as a synonym.Bartlett, George (d. 2013) – Fuchsia grower, exhibitor, prolific lecturer and writer, and former president and vice-president of the British Fuchsia Society (see also). Among his many published books on fuchsias are Fuchsias: The Complete Guide to Cultivation, Propagation and Exhibition (1988), Fuchsias for House and Garden (1992), Fuchsias: A Colour Guide (1996), Fuchsias: The New Cultivars (2000), and Hardy Fuchsias: Step by Step to Growing Success (2000). The attractive aubergine upright, 'President George Bartlett' bred by Mike Bielby and Len Oxtoby, was named and registered in his honor in 1997.Berries – The fruit of the fuchsia is an epigynous berry, similar in its botanical structure to apples or cucumbers, containing varying numbers of tiny seeds depending on the species. All species and cultivars produce edible berries even if they're generally bland tasting. Berries from the best-flavored species for eating, however, are often described by their connoisseurs as having a pleasantly sub-acid taste that is slightly grapey, peppery or lemony. If quantities are available they can be used to make dishes such as jams. Among the Maori of New Zealand, the berries of the Kotukutuku or native Tree Fuchsia (F. excorticata) were particularly prized and known by the name konini.
(Illustrations: Berries in various stages of ripeness on F. paniculata at right; berries on F. boliviana var. alba below.)Berry, Paul E. (b. 1952) – Formerly at the Missouri Botanical Garden, Washington University and the University of Missouri, all in St. Louis, Berry is now a professor at the ➤ University of Michigan, and the director and curator of the University's herbarium. He is also the world's leading scientific authority working on Fuchsia and its recognized expert. Additionally, Berry works particularly on two "giant genera" in the large and complicated family of the Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia and Croton. He has also published on the Rapateaceae, a family of about ninety-five species found in tropical South America and West Africa. See ➤ Scientific Bibliography.
Biennial, Biennial Method – The practice of growing plants from one year to flower in the following year. The resulting specimens are usually larger and stronger than if they were grown from cuttings taken in the late winter or spring to flower by the summer. The method was used to create the spectacular fuchsia pyramids, for example, so popular in grand Victorian gardens and estates before the First World War.
Biflora – Having two flowers. F. biflora (Sessé & Moç. 1894) is no longer a valid species but its current identification seems unresolved. It is either a synonym of F. cylindracaea (Lindl. 1827) or F. parviflora (Lindl. 1827), which is itself now a synonym of F. encliandra.
Binomial – A two-part name. Since introduced by Linnaeus (see also) in his Species plantarum in 1753, the scientific name of any species is a binomial in which the first part is the genus and the second, the species. Fuchsia magellanica, for example is the binomial designation for that species.
Boliviana – Bolivian; from Bolivia. See F. boliviana (Carrière 1876) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. boliviana var. luxurians (I.M.Johnst. 1925), F. boliviana f. puberulenta (Munz 1943), F. corymbiflora var. alba (Harrison 1849) F. cuspidata (Fawc. & Rendle 1926) and F. lenneana (Warcz. 1852 [invalid publication]) are all synonyms of F. boliviana. F. boliviana (Britton 1890) is illegitimate and a synonym of F. sanctae-rosae (Kuntze 1898).Bonstedt, Carl (1866-1953) – German botanist, gardener and hybridizer who worked primarily with F. triphylla in crosses with F. fulgens. His distinctive and still widely grown cultivars include 'Bornemann's Beste' (1904), 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt' (1905), 'Göttingen' (1905), 'Koralle' (1905), 'Mary' (1897), 'Thalia' (1905), 'Träudchen Bonstedt' (1905) and many others. Bonstedt's early fuchsias are sometimes attributed to nurseryman and "florist" Georg Bornemann as they were introduced to the public through his famous nursery in Blankenburg am Harz. Besides fuchsias, Bonstedt worked with a number of other plants including caladiums, calla lilies, lilies, nepenthes, primulas and even sarracenias.
Initially trained in Germany at the Pomologische Institut in Proskau (now Prószków, Poland) Bonstedt spent a number of his early years in England at Kew where he would have almost certainly developed his affinity for F. triphylla. That species had been sent there for identification in 1882 after being rediscovered from seeds collected in Haiti for the New York nurseryman, Thomas Hogg, Jr. (see also) in the 1870s. Bonstedt was later director of the Botanical Gardens in Rostock, located on the Baltic coast of Germany, from 1892-1900.
In 1900, Bonstedt became the technical director (Inspektor des Gartens) of the historic Göttingen Botanical Gardens (the Old Garden was establish in 1736) of the University of Göttingen, located in the German state of Lower Saxony, where he also lectured on horticulture. The Alpine Garden was established under his direction. He remained at Göttingen until his retirement in 1931. Even after his retirement, Bonstedt continued to write and lecture widely on horticultural subjects. He was the author of a number of books such as Schnittblumen: Handbuch für den Praxis des Schnittblumenbaues (1937) as well as the editor of the popular reference work, Parey's Blumengärtnerei.
The genus Bonstedtia, in the barberry family, is named in his honor.
(Illustrations: Later Bonstedt cultivars 'August Siebert' (1905), 'Puck' (1915), 'Georg Bornemann' (1915) and 'Irmgard Bonstedt' (1915). Contemporary drawings by the celebrated Johanna Beckmann published in Die Gartenwelt, Illustrierte Wochenschrift für den gesamten Gartenbau, 1915, Volume 19.)
Boothby, Clara Lady (1887-1951) – Founder and first president of the British Fuchsia Society in 1938. During a visit from her friend Queen Mary to Lady Boothby's home at Fonmon Castle in Glamorgan, Wales, the Queen reportedly saw an advertisement for the meeting of a local group called F.U.C.H.S.I.A.S. When told that it was a political organization that had nothing to do with fuchsias in the garden, Queen Mary expressed disappointment and stated that there should really be a fuchsia society and that Lady Boothby should be its first president. Lady Boothby and a small circle of fuchsia enthusiasts quickly agreed to form a fuchsia society and she did indeed become its first president. The cultivar 'Lady Boothby' was named in her honor by Welsh curator and botanist Charles Percival Raffill (1876-1951), who had hybridized it from F. alpestris x 'Royal Purple' in 1938, during a visit by Lady Boothby and the British Fuchsia Society to Kew in 1939
Box-thorn Fuchsia – Common name occasionally applied to F. lycioides, the sole species in ➤ Section Kierschlegeria. See also Lycioides.
Botanical Nomenclature – See Nomenclature.
Botany – The branch of biology the studies plants, fungi and algae.Bracelin, Nina Floy (1890-1973) – (She usually styled herself Mrs. N. Floy Bracelin or Mrs. H. P. Bracelin and was known to her friends as "Bracie.") Bracelin was an American botanical researcher and close friend of the Mexican-American plant hunter, Inés Mexía (1870-1938), whom she had first met while both attended an extension course at the University of California at Berkeley in 1927. Since Mexía apparently had a flagging interest in organizing, documenting and distributing her many important collections in Mexico and South America (which eventually numbered about 145,000 specimens), Bracelin took on the formidable task as assistant in 1928. She then also worked as a research assistant in the herbarium at the University of California at Berkeley. After Mexía's death in 1938, she was assistant to Alice Eastwood, curator of botany at the California Academy of Sciences, for three years as Mexía had given a small bequest in her will for Bracelin's employment there. She later worked at the U. S. Department of Agriculture’s Western Laboratory in Albany, California producing scientific illustrations. However, she maintained a close relationship to the Academy, which awarded her a lifetime membership in 1948 in recognition of her many contributions to the institution and botany. In recognition of Bracelin's work on the Mexía collections, Paul Munz named the species F. bracelinae in her honor in 1943. See F. bracelinae in ➤ Section Quelusia and ➤ "Bracie's Fuchsia" in the Urban Fuchsia Blog.
Bracelinae – Named in honor of Nina Floy Perry Bracelin (1890-1973). See: Bracelin; F. bracelinae (Munz 1943) in ➤ Section Quelusia; and ➤ "Bracie's Fuchsia" in the Urban Fuchsia Blog. No synonyms of this species are recorded.
Branchlet – A small branch, twig or sprig.Brébisson, Louis Alphonse de (1798-1888) – French botanist and photographer. Born in Falaise (Calvados, Basse-Normandie), Brébisson was well known for his Flore de la Normandie, which went through several editions, and his contributions to the Flore générale de France (1828-1829). He was one of the first scientists to use a microscope in the discovery and examination of minute plants. Besides his expertise in botany, Brébisson was a pioneer in the new art of photography, especially in Normandy, and published many books and articles on the subject resulting from his experimentations and investigations starting in 1839. He was a founding member of the French Photography Society (1854) and many of his prints were exhibited at the Great London Exposition, an international world's fair held in 1862. He would be among the first scientists to use micro-photography on tiny subjects, such as algae and diatoms, as well. Brebissonia microphylla (Spach 1835), named in his honor, is now synonymous with F. microphylla (Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823). See. F. microphylla, as well as F x bacillaris, in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Brebissonia – Named in honor of Louis Alphonse de Brébisson (1798-1888). Brebissonia microphylla (Spach 1835) is now synonymous with F. microphylla (Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823). See F. microphylla and F x bacillaris, in ➤ Section Encliandra; Brébisson.
Breedlove, Dennis E. (b. 1939) – American botanist. Breedlove has collected and published extensively on the plants of Central America and Mexico, especially of Chiapas, including Fuchsia. His 1968 doctoral thesis at Stanford University, in fact, was published in 1969 as The Systemics of Fuchsia sect. Encliandra (Onagraceae). As a former curator in the Botany Department at the California Academy of Sciences, Breedlove was instrumental in establishing the Central American Cloud Forest Garden in the San Francisco Botanical Garden at the Strybing Arboretum in Golden Gate Park. He is also noted for having made the only collection of seed from a rare and beautiful member of the Coffee Family found growing in only one valley near the Pacific Coast in the Mexican state of Chiapas. On Breedlove's next expedition, Deppea splendens (see also), the so-called "golden fuchsia", was found to have gone extinct in the wild due to the clearing of its restricted habitat for farming. Luckily, it is preserved in the Cloud Forest Garden at the SFBG and in other botanical gardens [including one potted specimen at Fuchsia in the City's own Hortulus Fuchsiarum].
Brevilobis – Exhibiting short lobes. See F. brevilobis (Berry 1989) in ➤ Section Quelusia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.
Brinco-de-princesa – A common name for the fuchsia in Portuguese. Literally "Princess's Eardrops."British Fuchsia Society – The British Fuchsia Society was founded in 1938, making it the second oldest after the American Fuchsia Society (1929). On a visit to her friend Clara Lady Boothby (1887-1951) at Fonmon Castle in Glamorgan, Wales, Queen Mary reportedly saw an advertisement for the meeting of a local group called F.U.C.H.S.I.A.S. When told that it was a political organization that had nothing to do with fuchsias, she was disappointed and stated that there should be a fuchsia society and that Lady Boothby should be its first president. Lady Boothby and a small circle of fuchsia enthusiasts quickly agreed that there should indeed be one and Lady Boothby did become its first president. While not the first fuchsia society, it is now the world's largest, however, and includes a great number of ➤ affiliated societies throughout the United Kingdom. The BFS publishes a biennial Bulletin, as well as an Annual. In October 2013, the British Fuchsia Society will marked its 75th anniversary with a convention at Stratford-upon-Avon, England. ➤ BFS Website.
Brittonii – F. brittonii (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is a synonym of F. sanctae-rosae (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Bud – Undeveloped or embryonic shoot usually found in leaf axils or at the tips of stems. Fuchsias are pinched or stopped to activate dormant buds into growth and develop a bushier and more floriferous plant. (See also Flower Bud.)
Bullate – Leaves, especially, that have a puckered or blistered surface. Similar to rugose, but not quite the same (see also).
Bulletin – The name of the periodical publications both of the American Fuchsia Society (quarterly) and the British Fuchsia Society (biennial).
- C - DCalifornia Fuchsia – Common name for Epilobium canum (formerly Zauschneria canum). It's another member of the Onagraceae Family with flowers that bear a close resemblance to those of its Fuchsia relatives. Also sometimes commonly called the "hoary fuchsia." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
(Illustration: Epilobium canum ssp. canum.)
Calyx – (Pl. calyces or calyxes.) The outer part of the flower that consists of the tube and sepals taken as a unit.
Campii – From fields or pastures; growing in open, even or flat areas. See F. campii (Berry 1995) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. There are no synonyms recorded of this species.
Campos de altitude – From the Portuguese for "high country or countryside." An ecological climate zone occurring generally in the Tropics, especially in South America and Africa, at an altitude above 1,200 meters (4,000 feet) and characterized by an open vegetation of natural fields of grasses and generally trailing woody plants or shrubs. The terrain is often rocky. The average temperatures of the campos de altitude are below 10° C (50° F) and they are subject to freezes and snow. The classic examples, from which the zone type derives its name, are areas such as the Pico da Bandeira and Pico das Agulhas Negras in Brazil. Other examples include Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa. Several members of Fuchsia sect. Quelusia are native to the campos de altitude of south-eastern Brazil and are among the most winter-hardy species in the genus. See See ➤ Section Quelusia.Campos Porto, Paulo de (1889-1968) – Campos Porto was a Brazilian botanist and director of the Jardim Botânico in Rio de Janeiro from 1934-1938 and again from 1951-1961. Usually in conjunction with the German botanist and explorer Alexander Curt Brade (1881-1971), he published widely on many members of the Orchidaceae. Gardens and orchids seem to have been a family tradition: His maternal grandfather, the noted Brazilian botanist and engineer, João Barbosa Rodrigues (1842-1909), was also director of the Botanic Garden at Rio de Janiero from 1890-1909 and published an important two-volume work on Brazilian orchids, Genera et species orchidearum novarum (1877 & 1881), as well. See F. campos-portoi in ➤ Section Quelusia.
(Illustration: F. campos-portoi.)
Campos-portoi – Named in honor of Paulo de Campos Porto (1889-1968). See: Campos Porto; F. campos-portoi (Pilg. & G.K.Schulze 1935) in ➤ Section Quelusia. There are no synonyms recorded of this species.Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de (1778-1841) – De Candolle (whose name is also rendered Augustin Pyrame) was a noted Swiss botanist who first published F. fulgens in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis (3: 39. 1828). This species had been collected in Mexico by Sessé & Mociño in about 1790. Mociño lent de Candolle his collection of botanical drawings from the so-called Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain (1787-1803) for study after meeting him in Montpelier during his exile in France. He had managed to take a large number of the drawings with him when he was forced to flee Spain in 1812. See also Fulgens, Mociño, Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain, Sessé.
(Illustration: Portrait of A. P. de Candolle by Jules Pizzetta, Galerie des naturalistes: Histoires des sciences naturelles, 1894.)
Canescens – Having grey hair, greyish. See F. canescens (Benth. 1845) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. There are no synonyms recorded of this species.
Cape Fuchsia – Not a true fuchsia at all, but a common name for the only two Phygellis species and their crosses. Often confused with true fuchsias, Phygellis is in the Snapdragon Family and native to South Africa. See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Caracasana – From Caracas in Venezuela. F. caracasana (Fielding & Gardner 1844) is a synonym of F. hirtella (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. The perhaps identical species designation F. caracasensis (Fielding & Gardner 1844) is also invalid but remains unresolved as a synonym.
Caracasensis – From Caracas in Venzuela. See Caracasana above.
Caranquii – Named for an Ecuadoran botanist and plant collector, Jorge Caranqui Aldaz (b. 1972) who published a short paper on fuchsias in Ecuador entitled Observaciones sobre Taxonomía y Propogacíon en el Ecuador del Género Fuchsia in 2002 and, later, an article on taxonomic and propagation advances of the genus Fuchsia in Ecuador (2011). F. x caranquii does not seem to be accepted as a formally published taxon, however, and apparently refers to a naturally occurring hybrid between F. scherffiana and F. steyermarkii.
Carotenes, Carotenoids – A group of compounds and pigments that give the yellow-orange to red colors found in many plants.
Caspid Bug – Various species within the Miridae, especially Lygocoris, Lygus and Plesiocoris. These small insects can cause a considerable amount of disfiguring damage to growing fuchsias. Capsid bugs suck sap, especially from the tips of shoots, through boreholes that cause the surrounding plant tissue to die. Consequently small holes and characteristic "tears" appear and disfigure the leaves as they grow. Flowering can be significantly delayed as new growth has to develop in compensation. Systemic insecticides and insecticidal soaps are both effective when applied at the first sign of caspid bug damage.
Caucana – From Cauca Province in Colombia. See F. caucana (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. There are no synonyms recorded of this species.
Ceracea – Waxy. See F. ceracea (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. There are no synonyms recorded of this species.
Cestroides – Resembling Cestrum, or jessamine. See F. cestroides (Schulze-Menz 1940) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella. There are no synonyms of this species recorded.
Chiapensis – From the state of Chiapas in Mexico. See F. microphylla subsp chiapensis in ➤ Section Encliandra of which F. chiapensis (Bradegee 1944) is a synonym.
Chilca – See Chilco.Chilco – Common name for F. magellanica (see also) in its native areas of Argentina and Chile. The word comes from the language of the indigenous Mapuche people and means "that which grows near water", in reference to the fact that it is often found growing on the banks of lakes or along watercourses. The species was observed and recorded as Thilco (see also) by the French scientist and explorer Louis Feuillée (see also) in 1714, which is a linguistic variation of chilco from the language of the Picunche, a Mapuche-speaking native agricultural people then living in Chile's Central Valley. The Picunche also used the roots of the plant to produce a black dye for coloring wool.Many additional linguistic forms and variations such as chilca, chillco, chilko, chillko, chilcón and chirco, as well as tilca, tilko and thilko, are all occasionally heard locally as well. For additional common names in Spanish see also Aljaba, Corales, Coralitos, Pendientes de la Reina.
(Illustration: 1. F. magellanica at the Arroyo Chilco on the shore of Lago Moscardi in the Patagonian Lake District of the Argentine Andes; 2. and along a steep stream draining into the same lake.)
Chilcón – See Chilco.
Chirco – See Chilco.
Chloroloba – Having green lobes. See F. chloroloba (I.M.Johnst 1939) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella. No synonyms of this species are recorded.Chlorophyll – A group of photosynthetic pigments with a chemical structure that includes a porphyrin ring, consisting of several fused rings of carbon and nitrogen, with a magnesium ion in the center. Chlorophyll appears green because it absorbs red and blue light but reflects green. It's found in a plant leaf's chloroplasts (see also).
(Illustration: Chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of plants cells.)
Chloroplasts – Organelles in a plant's leaves in which photosynthesis occurs (see also).
Chonotica – F. chonotica (Phil 1856) and F. coccinea var. chonotica (Phil.) Reiche 1897) are both synonyms of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Chromosomes – Very long, thread-like bodies that occur in the nuclei of all cells. Individual genes located on the chromosomes contain the genetic code for any organism's particular characteristics. In fuchsias, an awareness of chromosomes is very important to targeted hybrid breeding programs. Fuchsia chromosomes are large and heterogeneously sized for the Onagraceae family. They're always present in multiples of eleven (n = 11) and large double-flowered hybrids may achieve chromosomal counts of seven times the base, or more. Most sections in the genus are entirely diploid (n = 11), two are mostly diploid and two, Sections Quelusia and Kierschlegeria, are entirely polyploid, with some natural tetraploid (n = 22) or octoploid (n = 44) population areas occurring within F. regia.
Ciliate – Having an outer layer or margin edged with cilia or short hairs.
Cinnabarina – Cinnabar red. F. × cinnabarina (D.C.McClint.1950) is a synonym of F. × bacillaris (Lindl. 1832) in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Cinerea, Cinereous – Ash colored. See F. cinerea (P.E. Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.
Circaea – A genus in the Onagagracea family consisting of about seven to ten species. Known as enchanter's nightshade and named for the minor goddess of magic, Circe, who supposedly used it in her spells, Circaea are woodland plants occurring throughout temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere. Within the Onagraceae family (see also), this genus is the one most closely related to Fuchsia, with which it shares a position in the Circeeae tribe of the Onagroideae subfamily. Recent DNA analyses indicate that the two genera split from the same mother genus Circaea+Fuchsia about forty-one million years ago (➤ History of the Fuchsia).
Circaeeae – The tribe within the Onagroideae subfamily of the Onagraceae family (see also) that contains the genus Fuchsia. Its only other member is Circaea, the species most closely related to Fuchsia.
Cloud forest – A tropical or subtropical moist, evergreen forest generally located at or near the peaks of coastal mountains and characterized by frequent or persistent low-level cloud cover, especially at its canopy level. Also known as "fog forest" as much of its moisture might come by way of condensation dripping down from the canopy.Coccinea – Scarlet colored. See F. coccinea (Aiton 1789), or the Scarlet Fuchsia, in ➤ Section Quelusia. F. elegans (Salisb. 1791), F. montana (Cambess. 1830), F. pendula (Salisb. 1796) and Skinnera coccinea (Moench 1802) are all synonyms of this species. F. coccinea var. chonotica (Phil. Reiche 1897), F. coccinea var. macrostema (Ruiz & Pav. Hook. 1847) F. coccinea var. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pav. Hook.f 1847) and F. coccinea var. robustior (Hook.f. 1847) are all synonyms of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788).
(Illustration: F. coccinea, La Flore des Jardiniers Amateurs et Manufacturiers, 1836.)
Cochabambana – From Cochabamba Province in Bolivia. See F. cochabambana (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.Colenso, William (1811-1899) – Colenso was a Cornish printer's apprentice who came to New Zealand to work for the Christian Missionary Society in 1834, where he printed the first Maori translation of the Bible. Also active as an explorer and botanist, he sent many new plants back to Kew Gardens. Colenso caused somewhat of a scandal, and put his hoped-for religious ordination pretty much on hold, when it was discovered that he had fathered a son with his wife's Maori maid, Ripeka. Subsequently he spent several years botanizing in the "wilderness" but was apparently forgiven by New Zealand society as he was later elected a member of parliament for Napier from 1861-1866. Because of the several books and numerous articles he authored, he was the first resident of New Zealand to be elected to the Royal Society in London in 1866. In response to the bicentenary of his birth, the Colenso Society was formed in 2010 to promote his life and work. Not inappropriately, it seems, the fuchsia species name in his honor, F. colensoi, is now considered a natural hybrid between F. excorticata and F. perscandens. See ➤ Section Skinnera.
Colensoi – Named in honor of William Colenso (1811-1899). F. x colensoi (Hook 1847) is now considered a natural hybrid between F. excorticata and F. perscandens. See: Colenso; F. x colensoi in ➤ Section Skinnera.
Colimae – From or belonging to the state of Colima in Mexico. F. colimae (Munz 1943) is a synonym of F. thymifolia (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Encliandra.The Color Fuchsia – The sense of fuchsia as a color, despite a few sporadic premonitions, only surfaces in the written record in the early 1890's when it's suddenly heralded from newspapers as among the most fashionable of hues for ladies' dresses and hats. This original fuchsia, though, had more in common with the intense crimson-red or purple-red of the flower's sepals as it often kept company with "poppy," 'tomato" and "currant." The sudden appearance of this "fuchsia-red" emerged from a general embrace of reds by trend-setting society ladies after about 1893.Gradually, its general sense shifts from associations with red to those of a brilliant magenta. By the first years of the Twenties the change seems complete and the Dictionary of Color codifies it in 1930. Additionally, the restriction of the word fuchsia to a synonym for magenta was likely influenced by a chemical aniline dye, dubbed rosaniline hydrochloride or Fuchsine developed about 1856. Fuchsia's popularity waned and waxed, but the dye's brilliant fuchsia/magenta tones again became especially trendy by the late Teens and early Twenties (the flower itself was frequently reported as old-fashioned, having passed from its previous heights in nineteenth-century gardens) and fuchsine-dyed cloth probably defined fuchsia-colored clothes for a modern fashion industry only vaguely familiar with the actual flower. The trade name was coined about 1859 by the manufacturer Renard Frères et Franc and is a complete synonym for Magenta, anothercontemporary trade name for the same dye. The firm's choice was statedly influenced by the fact that fuchsias were simply very popular garden plants—ignoring the inconvenient fact that they really came in a broad range of colors—and that Fuchs translates into French as Renard (Fox). With the advent of HTML, web fuchsia (#FF00FF) and full magenta (#FF00FF) remain synonyms. A slightly more subdued hue called Fashion Fuchsia (#F400A1) is also known as Hollywood Cerise, or simply Hollywood.
See The Urban Fuchsia + Blog ➤ The Color Fuchsia for an expanded essay on the color.
(Illustrations: 1. Two ladies in walking dresses, Paris, 1896; 2. Fuchsias Nouveux, Revue de l'Horticulture Belge et Étrangère, 1876; 3. Fuchsine crystals and stain, ➤ Wikipedia.)
Colombiana – From Colombia. F. colombiana (Munz 1946) is a synonym of F. corollata (Benth. 1845) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Column – A specimen fuchsia that has been trained into a tall pillar shape with straight sides. One method of training is to select a vigorous upright stem to be grown to the desired height. The tip is removed and side shots are all pinched back uniformly to two or three sets of leaves. Further side shoots are again pinched back uniformly to two or three sets of leaves. The process is repeated until the desired width and density are reached. See also Biennial Method, Pyramid.
Common Names – The kotukutuku, F. excorticata or the tree fuchsia of New Zealand, is another example of an old native name that’s been adapted locally into English. Other names are really just translations of the Latin species epithet into English to make the plant more accessible to general readers. The “Small-leaf Fuchsia,” F. microphylla, or the “Scarlet Fuchsia,” F. coccinea, which dates as one of the earliest species introduced into cultivation, are two such examples. A number of so-called common names are listed in this Dictionary but with the caveat that their general usage, especially in English, is anything but common and is mostly restricted to repetition in reference works. See Lady's Eardrops.
Cone – A specimen fuchsia that has been trained into a tall pointed shape with a narrow base. An upright stem is selected and grown to about two feet. The tip is then removed and side shots are allowed to develop and then stopped at two or three sets or leaves. The top shoot, however, is grown on for another two feet before it's stopped, along again with the previously stopped side shoots on the lower level. The process is repeated until the desired height is reached and will usually take two years to create a large-sized specimen. A similar shape, the pyramid, is considered to have a wider base. The two shapes are more or less identical, however. See also Biennial Method, Pyramid.
Confertifolia – Densely leaved. See F. confertifolia (Fielding & Gardner 1844) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. dolichantha (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is a synonym of this species.
Conica – Cone shaped. F. conica (Lindl. 1827) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Coracifolia – Incorrect spelling of coriaceifolia (see).
Corales, coralitos – Common name for the fuchsia in some Spanish-speaking areas. Literally Corals or Little Corals in reference to the often bright, coral-like red of the flowers. See also Aljaba, Chilco, Pendientes de la Reina.
Corallina – Coral red. F. × corallina (Lynch 1883) is a synonym of F. × exoniensis (Paxton 1843). Current botanical conventions specify that these garden names, which have no recognized taxonomic status as natural species or crosses, should be treated as cultivars: Fuchsia 'Corallina' and Fuchsia 'Exoniensis.'
Cordate – Heart-shaped. The term is applied to fuchsia leaves with this general outline.
Coriacifolia – Incorrect spelling of coriaceifolia (see).
Cordifolia – Having heart-shaped leaves. F. cordifolia (Benth 1841) is a synonym of F. splendens (Zucc 1832) in ➤ Section Ellobium.
Coriaceifolia – Leathery-leaved. See F. coriaceifolia (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. Note: Due to a typographical error, the name of this then newly described species was incorrectly published as F. coracifolia [sic] in Paul E. Berry. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1982, Vol. 69, p. 150. The inadvertent omission of an "i" after the first "a" was later corrected in Paul E. Berry. “Nomenclatural Changes in the Genus Fuchsia.” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1988, Vol. 75, No. 3, p. 1150. Unfortunately, the corrected epithet contains a grammatical error and is misspelt as well. The Latin stems of coriacea + folia should have been joined as coriaceifolia, which is necessarily the correct spelling of the species despite the published nomenclatural change.Corolla – All the petals of the inner part of the flower taken together. (Illustration: Full, doubled corolla of 'Lisa'.)
Corollata – Like a corolla. See F. corollata (Benth 1845) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. colombiana (Munz 1946) is a synonym of this species.
Correa reflexa – Not a true Fuchsia at all but often commonly described as the "Australian Fuchsia" or "Native Fuchsia." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Corymb – A flat-topped or convex inflorescence in which the individual flower stalks grow upward from various points on the stem to all end at approximately the same height. The outer flowers of the corymb open first.
Corymbiflora – Flowering in corymbs (see also). See F. corymbiflora (Ruis & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. corymbosa (Pritzel 1866), F. munzii (J.F.Macbr. 1941) and F. velutina (I.M.Johnst. 1925) are all synonyms of this species. F. corymbiflora var. alba (Harrison 1849) is a synonym of F. boliviana 'Alba' in ➤ Section Fuchsia. It represents a pale-flowered horticultural selection and is a mutation found only in cultivation or naturalized in areas where it has escaped from cultivation.
Corymbosa – Full of corymbs, or flat topped flower heads. F. corymbosa (Pritzel 1866) is a synonym of F. corymbiflora (Ruis & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Crassate – Thick.
Crassistipula – Having thick stipules (see also). See F. crassistipula (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.
Crenate – Edged with rounded teeth. Leaves, for example, might have a crenate margin.
Croxteth Hall National Collection of Hardy Fuchsia Species & Cultivars – See National Collections (UK).Cuatrecasas y Arumí, José (1903-1996) – Also Josep Cuatrecasas i Arumí. Cuatrecasas was a celebrated Catalan-born botanist who worked as curator and then director at the Jardín Botánico in Madrid (1933-1939), taught at the Botanical Institute of the National University in Colombia (1939-1946), served as the curator of Colombian botany and researcher at the Field Museum of Chicago (1947-1955) and finally as a research associate at the U.S. National Herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution until his death (1955-1996). While still in Spain, Cuatrecasas had begun a publication on José Celestino Mutis' Flora Americana but that endeavor had to be abandoned when Francisco Franco took control of the country during the Civil War and the politically suspect Cuatrecasas was forced to flee into exile in Paris in 1939. That same year, he moved to Bogotá at the invitation of Colombia's president, Eduardo Santos. Cuatrecasas had previously been in Colombia in 1932, when he was sent as Spain's official representative for the bicentenary of Mutis' birth, and he took part in his first expedition to the páramo in the Cordillera Central. He returned again in 1938 when he conducted field trips to the Cordillera Oriental and the Llanos Orientales. The botany of Colombia would remain a life-long passion. When later based at the Smithsonian Institution, Cuatrecasas made ten separate collecting trips back to Colombia, as well as Venezuela. Although he also collected in a number of other countries, ninety-fiveper cent of his almost thirty thousand collections from the New World were taken in Colombia during one of his many expeditions there. He produced hundreds of publications in his lifetime and was the author of a great many taxa. His scientific passion was the Asteraceae, especially the genus Espeletia and his work focused on the high-elevation páramo and sub-páramo regions of the Andes, especially again on the Asteraceae and Malpighiaceae families. Cuatrecasas first collected the fuchsia that would later be described in his honor in Colombia in 1940 (Munz 1943). In 1997, the Smithsonian Institution established the José Cuatrecasas Botanical Fund to support significant research projects that emulate the spirit of his research and also awards an annual José Cuatrecasas Medal for Excellence in Tropical Botany since 2001. See F. cuatrecasasii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Cuatrecasasii – Named in honor of José Cuatrecasas Arumí (1903-1996). See: Cuatrecasas; F. cuatrecasasii (Munz 1943) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.
Cultigen – A plant that that have been deliberately modified or altered through artificial selection. See also Cultivar.Cultivar – Short for "cultivated variety" (or perhaps "cultigen variety" according to some thoughts) and used for all forms of fuchsias, such as hybrids, that don't occur naturally and which have characteristics that can be maintained through propagation. Cultivar names are always placed within single quotes. For example, Fuchsia 'Pink Marshmallow' or Fuchsia magellanica 'Gracillis.' The word is abbreviated as cv. However it is not necessary to use it before the cultivar name in the same way one would use subsp. or var.
(Illustration: La Belgique Horticole, Annales d'Horticulture Belge et Étrangère, F. Detollenaere, 1863.)Curtis, William (1746-1799) – Curtis began his career as an apothecary and entomologist before turning to botany at Kew Gardens, where he held several positions. He was active at the Chelsea Physic Garden as a Demonstrator and Praefectus Horti from 1771 to 1777 and subsequently opened his own London Botanic Garden, first at Lambeth in 1779, and then in Brompton in 1789. His Flora Londinenis, published in six volumes between 1777 and 1798, was a financial flop but a seminal work on urban plants. Starting in 1787, he published the first issue of his successful and influential reference work, The Botanical Magazine; or, Flower-Garden Displayed, which featured elegant hand-colored copper-engraved plates by a number of artists alongside a page or two of text describing that plant's features and history. The magazine was continued after Curtis's death and is still published by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew as Curtis's Botanical Magazine. "Fuchsia Coccinea. Scarlet Fuchsia" appeared as No. 97 of Vol. 1 in 1794. The illustration of this fuchsia, done by Sydenham Edwards who produced most of the watercolors for the first volume, is both interesting and beautiful but seems to underscore the perplexing confusion between F. coccinea and F. magellanica at this early date. The leaves are characteristic of the latter, with its red veining, while the flowers tend more to the former. The plant stock for the drawing was apparently provided by James Lee's nursery. The text also seems to conflate the two. Fuchsia coccinea is indeed more tender but, since most all the so-called F. magellanica varieties grown today are actually hybrids, it's not inconceivable that the plant used for the illustration was already a cross between the two. As Curtis's work was highly influential in introducing new plants to a wide audience both in Britain and the United States, it's well worth quoting the accompanying description in full:The present plant is a native of Chili, and was introduced to the royal gardens at Kew, in the year 1788, by Capt. Firth; it takes the name of Fuchsia from Fuchs a German Botanist of great celebrity, author of the Historia Stirpium in folio, published in 1542, containing five hundred and sixteen figures in wood; and which, though mere outlines, express the objects they are intended to represent, infinitely better than many laboured engravings of more modern times. Every person who can boast a hot-house will be anxious to possess the Fuchsia, as it is not only a plant of peculiar beauty, but produces its rich pendant blossoms through most of the summer; the petals in the centre of the flower are particularly deserving of notice; they somewhat resemble a small roll of the richest purple-coloured ribband. Though this plant will not succeed well in the winter, nor be easily propagated unless in a stove, it will flower very well during the summer months, in a good greenhouse or hot-bed frame, and though at present from its novelty it bears a high price, yet as it is readily propagated, both by layers, cuttings, and seeds, it will soon be within the purchase of every lover of plants. Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, we understand first had this plant for sale.
(Illustrations: Portrait of William Curtis and "Fuchsia Coccinea," The Botanical Magazine, 1794)
Curviflora – Having a curved flower. F. curviflora (Benth.1845) is a synonym of F. petiolaris (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Cuspidata – Sharply pointed. F. cuspidata (Fawc. & Rendle 1926) is a synonym of F. boliviana (Carrière 1876) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Cutting – A piece of a plant, such as the tip of a branch, that will be used to vegetatively propagate a new plant from the parent by rooting.
Cylindracea – A cylinder; cylindrical. See F. cylindracea (Lindl. 1838) in ➤ Section Encliandra.Cyrtandroides – Resembling Cyrtandra, flowering plants of the Gesneraceae family common to Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. See F. cyrtandroides (J.W.Moore 1940) in ➤ Section Skinnera. No synonyms are recorded for this species.
Dahl, Salli - Retired teacher and fuchsiologist living in the State of Washington in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Dahl is the author of Wildly Seeking Fuchsias: A History of the Fuchsia in America (2008), a ground-breaking study of the first appearance and popular spread of fuchsias in the United States, as well as its sequel and supplement, Still Wildly Seeking Fuchsias (2010).
Damping off – The collapse or death of new cuttings or seedlings due to an attack by various kinds of fungi, often at soil level. Damping off mostly occurs under wet and cold conditions. Using sterile medium, providing some air circulation and keeping the soil somewhat drier can help prevent the spread of the disease. Spraying or drenching the soil with an anti-fungal treatment, such as copper oxychloride, also helps suppress the disease. The copper-based fungicide called Cheshunt compound, a mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate once widely used in the United Kingdom, is no longer legally used there (2011). Organic solutions, such as ones made from chamomile tea or garlic, are also used by some gardeners and are reported to be an effective treatment against the problem.Darwin, Charles (1809-1882) – British naturalist, geologist and biologist who is best known for his seminal and ground-breaking work, On the Origin of Species (1859), in which he proposed the scientific theory that the process of natural selection drives the branching and evolution of species. Well on his way to becoming a clergyman in rural England, Darwin was providentially recruited to join the HMS Beagle for its second voyage surveying the coast of South America (1831-1836). Despite the Beagle's rather routine warrant, the mission would prove to be historic for the profound influence it had on the young Darwin and the questions it raised in his curious mind. The ship returned to England via New Zealand, Tasmania and Australia. Darwin didn't rejoin the Beagle for its third mission to map the entire coast of Australia (1837-1843) but the crew might have missed him as they named Port Darwin in his honor. Or at least in honor of a new type of fine-grained sandstone found at Port Darwin that reminded them of him.It was from the Tierra del Fuego in June 1834 that Darwin first quoted Captain Phillip Parker King's (1791-1856) observation of "large woody stemmed trees of Fuchsia and Veronica, in England considered and treated as tender plants, in full flower, within a very short distance of the base of a mountain covered for two-thirds down with snow, and with the temperature at 36°…Hummingbirds were seen sipping the sweets of the flowers after two or three days of constant rain, snow, and sleet, during which time the thermometer had been at the freezing point." Later on December 18th of the same year, he recounted his own first personal brush with the fuchsia at Cabo Tres Montes when he "succeeded in reaching the summit of this hill. It was a laborious undertaking, for the sides were so steep, that in some parts it was necessary to use the trees as ladders: there were also several extensive brakes of the Fuchsia covered with its beautiful drooping flowers, but very difficult to crawl through."According to Duncan M. Porter in "Charles Darwin's Chilean Plant Collections" (Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 72: 181-200, 1999), Darwin sent a scientific specimen of those very same fuchsias back to England as well. The specimen, however, is listed by Porter as missing from Darwin's known collections preserved at Cambridge, Kew and in other herbaria. A set of Darwin's Chilean plants had been sent to John Stevens Henslow at the Cambridge Botanic Garden for identification but Henslow was unable to work much on the almost fifteen hundred specimens due to his other duties. In an appeal from Henslow, it had fallen to Sir William Jackson Hooker, an eminent botanist at Glasgow University and first director of Kew from 1841 to 1865, to help identify mainly plants from the Aster Family. However, it is to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (see also), one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the nineteenth century and next director of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew after his father from 1865 to 1885, that we seem to owe the sole record of Darwin's collection of Fuchsia. According to Porter, the younger Hooker ascribes "Fuchsia magellanica Lam. (Onagraceae). Prov. Aisén: Bahía San Andres, Península de Taito, 22 December 1834" to Darwin in The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror (1843-1847). The date and location make sense as this Fuchsia would have been collected by Darwin only days after his arduous climb to the top of a hill at Cabo Tres Montes through those difficult thickets of fuchsias. Unfotunately, Porter doesn't provide a firm citation and the only reference to Darwin and the fuchsia in Hooker (1843-1847) is simply an abbreviated confirmation of habitat. Live specimens of some of the Chilean plants sent on by Darwin from Valdivia and Valparaíso were grown in the Cambridge Botanic Garden by Henslow from seed as well. It's not known if F. magellanica might have been among any of those Chilean plants raised by Henslow.
No other fuchsia species were noted by Darwin during the trip. F. magellanica is the only species, besides F. lycioides at the edge of the arid Atacama Desert of Chile, that comes down from the mountains to the coast on this side of South America so it's not surprising that Darwin seemed more distracted by the evolutionary possibilities of the finch than the fuchsia by the time the expedition reached the Galápagos Islands. Darwin's take on F. lycioides might have been especially interesting if he had encountered it as the Beagle slowly made its way up the Pacific coast, as that species seems to be evolving into a thorny cactus in its harsh desert habitat. On the Atlantic coast of southern São Paulo and Paraná states, in mountainous southeastern Brazil, F. brevilobis does occur from 900 meters (3000 feet) down to sea level but the Beagle never made landfall in the area after stopping in Rio de Janeiro for supplies in 1832.Fuchsia did rate a mention in On the Origin of Species itself, it seems, but only as a garden inhabitant: "The practical experiments of horticulturists, though not made with scientific precision, deserve some notice. It is notorious in how complicated a manner the species of Pelargonium, Fuchsia, Calceolaria, Petunia, Rhododendron, &c., have been crossed, yet many of these hybrids seed freely." In The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (1868), Darwin refers to it but, again, only in the company of other popular garden plants as "one of the plants which are cultivated for their flowers alone [and] in their present state are the descendants of two or more species crossed and commingled together". In the same work he quotes, "the remarkable case of a seed from Fuchsia coccinea fertilised by F. fulgens, which contained two embryos, and was 'a true vegetable twin.' The two plants produced from the two embryos were 'extremely different in appearance and character,' though both resembled other hybrids of the same parentage produced at the same time." Darwin seems more fascinated by this odd chimera as a freak of horticulture than as a normal plant and the remarkable number of differentiated fuchsia species hiding out in the Andes remain unnoticed.Finally, only in a private letter to the eminent British geologist and close friend Charles Lyell in 1866, does Darwin come close to recognizing the scientific potential and evolutionary usefulness of the many diverse fuchsia species as anything more than pleasing garden ornaments. "It seems I had erred greatly about some of the plants on the Organ Mountains," he writes. "But I am very glad to hear about Fuchsia, etc." Darwin had himself only viewed these distant peaks, home of a number of fuchsias such as F. regia and F. alpestris, from the Beagle as it slowly passed down the coast of Brazil in 1832. He wondered "how any, ever so few, temperate forms reached the mountains of Brazil" and was now trying to understand what the evidence of these temperate-climate plants separated from their relatives in the Andes Mountains across "low intervening hot countries" might mean. As a route of dispersal and differentiation he supposed that they "traveled by the rather high land and ranges (name forgotten) which stretches from the Cordillera [Chilean-Argentinean Andes between 31° and 39° S latitude] towards Brazil. Cordillera genera of plants have also, somehow, reached the Silla of Caracas [in the Venezuelan Coastal Range of the Andes]." Scientists in this period, of course, were only beginning to understand the vast changes that have happened in the Earth's drifting geology, as well as the causes and effects of these changes on climate and plants.
For a brief summation of Fuchsia evolution and differentiation before and after Darwin, see ➤ History of the Fuchsia.
(Illustrations: 1. Portrait of Charles Darwin. George Richmond, 1840; 2. H.M.S Beagle 1832. Raymond Massey, 1832; 3. The rounded knob of the Cabo Tres Montes at the end of the Taitao Peninsula. The Bahía de San Andrés lies on the Pacific Ocean and is the indent in the upper western corner of the map; 4. Interior view of Darwin's greenhouses at Down House. "The Debt of Science to Darwin," The Century, Vol. 25, Issue 3 (January 1883); 5. The Organ Mountains in Brazil. Illustrated Travels: A Record of Discovery, Geography, and Adventure, London, 1880.)
Decidua – Deciduous; shedding or loosing leaves seasonally. See F. decidua (Standl. 1929) in ➤ Section Ellobium. No synonyms are recorded for this species.
Decumbent – Lying on the ground with tips turned upwards.
Decussata – Having leaves borne in pairs and held at right angles to each other; shaped like an X. See F. decussata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. fusca (E.H.L.Krause 1906) and F. scandens (E.H.L.Krause 1905) are synonyms of this species.
Delirious with Fuchsias in the Garden – A poem by Vincent Silvertop. ➤ Delirious with Fuchsias in the Garden.
Denticulta – Finely toothed, especially the leaves. See F. denticulata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. leptopoda (E.H.L.Krause 1905), F. serratifolia (Ruiz & Pav. 1802), F. siphonantha (E.H.L.Krause 1905) and F. tacsoniiflora (E.H.L.Krause 1905) are all synonyms of this species.
Dependens – Hanging down. See F. dependens (Hook. 1837) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms are recorded for this species.Deppea splendens – A beautiful and very ornamental member of the Coffee Family. Discovered in 1973 by botanist Dennis Breedlove (see also), Deppea splendens was found growing in the cool, frost-free mountains of southern Mexico. The novel species was known only from a single canyon on the south slope of Cerro Mozotal in southern Chiapas, within sight of the Pacific Ocean, where it naturally occurred as a fifteen- to twenty-five-foot shrub or small tree in pine-oak cloud forest. It was occasional on the slope of the steep canyon but occurred abundantly along streams. When Breedlove returned in 1986, the whole area had been cleared for farmland and the plant is now presumed to be extinct in the wild. Fortunately, Breedlove had collected seeds at the time of discovery and Deppea splendens is preserved in cultivation. It is occasionally called the "Golden Fuchsia." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
(Illustration: Deppea spendens in the Mesoamerican Cloud Forest at the ➤ San Francisco Botanical Garden (Strybing Arboretum) in Golden Gate Park.)Descourtilz, Michel Étienne (1775-1836) – Descourtilz was a French physician and botanist. After completing his studies, he was sent as a médecin-naturaliste by the French Republic to Haiti. Traveling on a long but interesting journey by way of Charlestown, South Carolina and Santiago de Cuba, he finally arrived at his appointed destination in April, 1799. At that period the whole island was in major turmoil because of slave revolts and British invasions. Despite being granted a safe-conduct pass by the leader of the revolution, Toussaint Louverture, Descoutilz's life was in constant danger and he had close brushes with death. He even found himself taken prisoner by rebels but was spared when it was discovered he was a doctor. In spite of the dangerous misadventures, Descourtilz still managed to make a number of significant botanical collections, mostly between Port-au-Prince and Cap-Haïtien, as well as along the Artibonite River. By 1803 it seems that he had enough of the continuing excitement of revolution and he returned to France where he later published his experiences as Voyages d’un naturaliste in 1809. While it is reported that his collections and many of his drawings were destroyed during the course of the unrest, he did still manage to save enough material, it seems, to eventually publish the Flore pittoresque et médicale des Antilles ineight volumes between 1821 and 1829. In Volume II, released in 1822, he includes an entry on F. triphylla, which he calls the Fuchsie à grappes. It is introduced by a rather fine colored plate painted by his son, the naturalist and artist Jean-Théodore Descourtilz (1796-1855), possibly from a trip of his own to Haiti in 1821. Along with the lengthy botanical description, Descourtilz relays a number of interesting details: That its flowers were used as a dye by natives; that it's easily propagated from suckers, cuttings or seeds; that it should be frequently sprinkled with water when in cultivation; and that its berries are sweet to the taste. One would almost suspect that he had grown the plant himself. There is also a thorough explanation of its medicinal properties. He even gives a recipe for preparing medicine from F. triphylla and how it should be applied. What is perhaps most fascinating in Descourtilz's report is that he observed the plant a number of times at Santiago de Cuba. As F. triphylla is not native to that island, it was evidently in cultivation there at the time.
(Illustration: Fuchsie à grappes, Plate 109 in Descourtilz's Flore pittoresque et médicale des Antilles, ou, Histoire naturelle des plantes usuelles des colonies françaises, anglaises, espagnoles et portugaises, Vol. II, 1822.)
Diagnosis – The description that formally identifies a new species on its publication. Until 2011, a diagnosis was required to be written in Latin to be valid. Since the last International Botanical Congress held in Melbourne, Australia in 2011, however, botanists may now publish a valid diagnosis in English as well as in Latin. See also International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).
Dickinson, Emily (1830-1886) – American poet. Although the vast bulk of her work remained unpublished until four years after her death due to her reclusive nature, Dickinson would posthumously become one of the most celebrated poets of the nineteenth century. Her letters and poems are rife with allusions to gardens and flowers as emblems of her actions and emotions so it’s not surprising that the fuchsia would also make an appearance in both her work and her garden. In fact, a small fuchsia slip with two flowers was pressed into her herbarium book of plants collected between 1839 and 1846 and neatly labeled in her hand as “Fuschia [sic], magellanica. 5– 1.” It’s amusing to note that she makes the same common mistake that has foiled more than one spelling bee contestant since Plumier and which many still make today. Surprisingly for one of the most popular and fashionable plants of the period, the fuchsia appears only once among her almost eighteen hundred poems. I tend my flowers for thee, written in early 1862 as if to an absent lover, features some eight of the inhabitants of her garden and starts off with a striking and evocative image of the opening fuchsia that comes aboutas close to a floral strip tease as the prim public manners of the age might allow:
I tend my flowers for thee —
My Fuchsia's Coral Seams
Rip — while the Sower — dreams
➤ I tend my flowers for thee.
(Illustration: F. magellanica from the garden of Emily Dickinson. It shares the page with five other plants on folio 39 of her herbarium, now preserved in the Houghton Library at Harvard University. The whole collection, taken by Dickinson from 1839-1846, contains over five hundred plant specimens all neatly pressed and labeled with their scientific names on the book’s sixty-six pages.)
Dioecious, Dioecism – A dimorphic breeding system in plants in which the species population is divided between individuals that have staminate or male flowers and those that have pistillate or female flowers. Some fuchsias, such as F. encliandra, are dioescious. (See also Gynodioecious, Perfect Flowers)
Diploid – Having two sets of chromosomes.
Discolor – Two-colored, of varying colors. F. discolor (Lindl. 1836) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788) ➤ Section Quelusia.
Distal – Remote from the point of attachment or origin. For example, the distal end of a branch. See also Proximal.
Dolicantha – Long flowered. F. dolichantha (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. confertifolia (Fielding & Gardner 1844) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Dominiana – F.× dominiana (auct. 1854) is an invalid species but remains unresolved as a synonym. Fl. [Serres Jard. Eur. 10: 95 1854.]
Dorsal – Referring to the upper surface or top side of a leaf.Dryander, Jonas Carlsson (1748-1810) – Jonas Dryander was a Swedish botanist and pupil of Carolus Linnaeus at Uppsala University. He came to London in 1777 and, following the death of his friend Daniel Solander (see also), became the botanist-librarian to Sir Joseph Banks (see also) in 1782. He was also the librarian of the Royal Society and served as the vice-president of the Linnean Society, of which he was one of the founders, until his death. Dryander was the first botanist to describe F. coccinea based on the cultivated plants that had been introduced at Kew. See also Aiton.
(Illustration: Detail of Jonas Dryander by W. Daniell, 1811 after George Dance, 1795.)
Double – Cultivated fuchsia with eight or more petals to the blossom. In nature, fuchsias have four petals. Some have none. See also Single, Semi-Double.
Dunlop, Fuchsia – See Fuchsia (personal name).
Dwarf Fuchsia – Common name very occasionally applied to F. x bacillaris in ➤ Section Encliandra.
- E - FEastwood, Alice (1859-1953) – Eastwood was a renowned Canadian-American botanist active at the California Academy of Science in San Francisco. In 1890 she assumed a post in the herbarium and was given a position as joint Curator of the Academy with Katherine Brandegee in 1892. By 1894, with the retirement of Brandegee, Eastwood was procurator and head of the department of botany, a position she held until she retired in 1949. Ignoring the destruction of her own home and loss of most of her possessions, Eastwood heroically saved the Academy's type plant collection after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. She had segregated the type specimens from the main collection and, while much was lost, this system permitted her to retrieve about 1500 of the invaluable type specimens from the burning Academy building in short time to take them to safety. Among her many, many achievements in botany, Eastwood was one of the founding members of the American Fuchsia Society in 1929 and was instrumental in holding the young Society together in its early years as a number of its original eleven members fell away. For the quickly undertaken census of fuchsias growing in gardens and nurseries in California, she instructed society members and others on how to properly take and mount specimens to send to her at the Academy.In 1931, she published "True Species of Fuchsia Cultivated in California" (National Horticultural Magazine, 10:2:100-104). In recognition of her contributions, the American Fuchsia Society honored her with its Medal of Achievement in 1949. The hybrid, 'Alice Eastwood,' was also named for her by Hazard & Hazard in 1929. Despite most of a lifetime spent in San Francisco and her decades-long dedication to the city and to the native plants of California, the pioneering Eastwood was oddly to be buried under a simple, nondescript flat marker in ➤ Toronto's Necropolis, in a city that she had left behind at the age of fourteen, after her death in 1953. The San Francisco Botanical Garden, however, does have the Alice Eastwood Garden established in her honor and planted with fuchsias, Unfortunately the Eastwood Garden is hidden away in a corner inside the main entrance and suffers somewhat from benign neglect.
(Illustrations: 1. Eastwood viewing a rift in the Olema Valley north of San Francisco caused by the 1906 earthquake. G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geological Survey, 1906; 2. Sorting botanical specimens in the field in 1929, the year she helped found the American Fuchsia Society. MSS. 142, Alice Eastwood Papers, California Academy of Sciences Archives, San Francisco, Calif.)
Eburnea – Ivory white. A very pale-flowered selection of F. magellanica was described as F. magellanica var. eburnea (Pisano 1979). This designation, however, no longer has any taxonomic status and should now only be written as F. magellanica 'Eburnea.' F. magellanica 'Alba' (Clarence Elliot 1932) and 'Molinae' (Espinoza 1929) are generally considered to be two further pale-flowered horticultural selections that are the same, or so close to the same as 'Eburnea,' as to be synonyms.
Elegans – Elegant. F. elegans (Salisb. 1791) is a synonym of F. coccinea (Aiton 1789) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Elliptic – Shaped like an ellipse or oval. The term is applied to fuchsia leaves with this general outline.
Ellobium – From the Greek ellobion, or earring. Ellobium fulgens (Lilja 1841) is synonymous with F. fulgens (De Candolle 1828). It had previously been transferred from another now invalid genus, Spachia fulgens (Lilja 1840), before finally being settled back in Fuchsia. The name was later revived for the Ellobium section of the genus, however (Breedlove, Berry, Raven 1982). See F. fulgens in ➤ Section Ellobium; Fulgens; Spachia.
Encliandra – From the Greek for "enclosed male," referring to the fact that the flower's stamens are enclosed within the floral tube. Encliandra parviflora (Zuccarini 1837) in now synonymous with F. encliandra (Steudel 1840). See F. encliandra in ➤ Section Encliandra, of which there are three recognized subspecies.
Encliandras – The Encliandra section species, as well as their hybrids, characterized by similar miniature flowers and the same general lacy-leaf effect of the foliage characteristic of the plants in the section. Some typical Encliandra hybrids are 'Cherry Pop', 'Irish Cup' and 'Lottie Hobbie'.
Endemic – Unique to a specific geographic area.
Entire – A leaf margin or edge that is smooth and untoothed; without notches or indentations. F. arborescens, for example, has leaves with entire margins.Epilobium canum – Formerly Zauschneria canum, Epilobium canum is another member of the Onagraceae Family with flowers bearing a close resemblance to those of its Fuchsia relatives. It's commonly called the "California Fuchsia" or also sometimes the "Hoary Fuchsia." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
(Illustration: Epilobium canum, or the California Fuchsia.)
Epiphyte – A plant that grows on another plant, such as a tree, or on other surface, such as on a rock, in a non-parasitical manner and gets its moisture and nutrients from rain and accumulated organic debris. A number of fuchsias, such as f. fulgens or F. apetala, can sometimes be found growing as epiphytes on trees or rocks as well as in the ground.
Eufuchsia – From the prefix eu, meaning good or well, plus Fuchsia. Former name and synonym of ➤ Section Fuchsia. The change of this section's name to Fuchsia was necessarily made to reflect the fact that the type species of the genus, F. triphylla, is in the section.
Euro-Fuchsia – An association of European fuchsia societies founded in 1984 when several national societies joined forces with the goal of encouraging cooperation and exchanging information on the culture and propagation of fuchsias across Europe. There are currently fourteen member societies, with a combined membership of about ten thousand, and the association meets annually. Euro-Fuchsia recently lost two long-standing members when the Swedish Fuchsia Society permanently folded and the British Fuchsia Society withdrew due to the flagging interest of its own members. In 2011, Euro-Fuchsia updated its constitution to include smaller societies and internet fuchsia groups, as well as individual members. While its attention remains focused on Europe, membership is now open to non-European groups as well. ➤ Euro-Fuchsia.
Evening Primrose Family – See Onagraceae.Excorticata – Stripped of bark; having its bark hanging away. F. excorticata, the native tree fuchsia or kotukutuku of New Zealand, was named for its very characteristic bark but a number of other species discovered since it was first described also exhibit the tendency to have strips of bark flaking or hanging away to greater or lesser degrees. On F. excorticata, the resulting mottled patterning on portions of its large tree-sized trunks and branches can be especially attractive. See F. excorticata (G.Forst., L.f. 1782) in ➤ Section Skinnera. Skinnera excorticata (J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. 1776) is a synonym of this species.(Illustrations: 1. Base of the trunk of F. excorticata showing strips of its bark hanging away; 2. Upper trunk with mottled patches of fresh green showing through older bark and strips hanging away.)
Exoniensis – From Exeter in England. F. exoniensis or F. x exoniensis (Paxton 1843) is an inlaid taxonomic synonym of a horticultural selection or likely garden hybrid of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788). Today the name should be rendered as F. magellanica 'Exoniensis' to indicate its origin in cultivation.
Experscandens – F experscandens or F. × experscandens (Allan 1927) is an unresolved name published by H. H. Allan in "Illustrations of Wild Hybrids in the New Zealand Flora," Genetica: A Journal of Genetics and Evolution, Volume 9, Issue 4-6, July 1927, p. 507. It seems to represent a possible natural hybrid with F. perscandens.
Fan – A fuchsia that have been trained into a flat, espaliered shape that resembles the classic outline of an opened folding fan. Training starts with the selection of shoot with four or five sets of leaves. The side shoots are directed into a fan shape, usually with the help of supports, and then stopped at six or seven sets of leaves, and the next set of side shoots at two or three sets of leaves. The topmost, however, is left to grow as a repeat of the original shoot. The process is continued until the desired size of the fan has been reached.
Fashion Fuchsia – Hollywood cerise or simply Hollywood, a bright pink or magenta color used in the fashion industry, is sometimes referred to as fashion fuchsia. Its hex triplet code for HTML programming is #F400A1(See also Color Fuchsia).Faux Fuchsias – A number of plants are often inaccurately called "fuchsias," of one sort or another, because their flowers are thought to resemble the fuchsia's characteristic ones. Australia, for some reason perhaps due to a pining in its harsher climate for those English gardens left behind, seems especially prone to faux fuchsias. Among the wannabes are plants such as the Australian Fuchsia (Correa reflexa), the Tree Fuchsia (Halleria placida) and the Cape Fuchsia (Phygelius capensis and P. aequalis, and their crosses, P. x rectus). The only one that might remotely claim the title, though, is the California Fuchsia (Epilobium canum, formerly Zauschneria), a species also in the Evening Primrose Family (Onagraceae) and closely related to the real Fuchsia. See ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
(Ilustration: Epilobium canum, or the California Fuchsia.)
Ferreyra Huerta, Ramón (1910-2005) – Peruvian botanist, environmentalist, plant collector, and professor at the National University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru where he also served as director of its Museum of Natural History from 1961-1981. Additionally, he was the founder of the San Marcos Herbarium and botanical assessor for the La Molina Experimental Agricultural Station. See F. ferreyrae in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Ferreyrae – Named in honor of Ramón Ferreyra (1910-2005). The new species as described was collected in 1978 by Paul Berry and James Aronson on the road to Concepción in the Janín Department of Satipo Province in Peru. See: Ferreyra; F. ferreyrae (Berry 1982) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms of this species are recorded.Feuillée, Louis (1660-1732) – Another Minim monk—and student of Charles Plumier—Feuillée was an astronomer and cartographer sent by the French government on an exploratory journey through Chile, Argentina and Peru from 1707-1711. Evidently, this was the trip that Charles Plumier was himself originally to have undertaken before he died. In his Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (Paris, 1714), Feuillée recorded and illustrated a Chilean plant he called Thilco. It would later be published as F. magellanicaby Lamarck in 1788. Besides Thilco, Feuillée is noted for his observation of the Humboldt Current a century before Humboldt, the reverse order of the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere, and first mention of the tasty Chilean strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis, which is now one of the two parents of our modern garden hybrids. Oh, and Feuillée's Monster, apparently a fantastic mutant lamb he observed while in Buenos Aires and later illustrated from memory. See also Chilco, Thilco.
Field Techniques – Methods used in the collection and preparation of botanical specimens while in the field or on plant-hunting expeditions. For an excellent set of recommendations for high-quality results, see this handbook from the ➤ Missouri Botanical Garden.
Fierce Fuchsia – A poem apparently by Erlin Aprilia Efendi which begins, "Out there the pink comes up, Undeniable its heart is numb, The real comes in the end, The first is just for heaven; Inside here the purple appears, It shows its calyx then consoles quite clear…" The poet seems otherwise unknown in English and it is quite possible that the work represents a single submission of unpublished material or perhaps a translation of some original in another language. ➤ Fierce Fuchsia.
Filament – The stalk portion of the stamen. The pollen-producing sac, the anther, is located at its end. In fuchsias, the protruding and variously colored filaments often add significantly to the decorative effect of the flowers.
Filipes – Having thread-like stalks. F. filipes (Rusby 1927) is a synonym of F. sanctae-rosae (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Final Pinch or Stop – The last removal of a fuchsia's growing tips before the plant is left to flower. Flowering can usually occur anywhere from eight to twelve weeks after the final stop depending on the cultivar. The timing of the last stop is especially important when preparing the floral display of a particular cultivar to be at its peak for a flower show.Firth, Captain – The mysterious seaman who is often said to have brought the first fuchsia cultivated in English gardens into the country sometime during the 1780's, when it was supposedly noticed by a commercial nurseryman passing his mother's windowsill. Or simply on an anonymous wife's or widow's windowsill in Wapping in some versions, leaving Firth out altogether. It's been suggested that the colorful story was an invention to cover the questionable liberation of cuttings from the royal botanical collection at Kew. That explanation is very unlikely, however (see Lee). The Tale of the Windowsill first surfaces well after the brief citation of Firth in the Hortus Kewensis and it becomes embroidered with increasing detail and sentiment, even to the point of melodrama, as time goes on. Even Charles Dickens has a go at the story in his journal, Household Words, published from 1850-1859.A fuchsia is indeed listed as being grown at Kew in the 1789 catalogue, the Hortus Kewensis, and Captain Firth stated as its source. Called Fuchsia coccinea, the new acquisition is obviously confused with F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788), a species with a similar flower, since reference is made to Feuillée's thilco (see also) and it's noted, "Native of Chili. Introd. 1788, Captain Firth." A dried specimen taken from the original plant at the time of its arrival at Kew, however, does confirm it as today's F. coccinea. Nonetheless, a real amount of mystery remains behind the plant at Kew. The calyx of F. magellanica is certainly often scarlet and there's much public confusion at this early period between the two names, if not the two species. F. magellanica is also very variable across its native range, which can additionally blur identification. In early references, it's quite impossible to tell which species is really which. F. coccinea may have been described first in England but the question remains: "When did the much more widely grown and hardy F. magellanica enter English gardens?"
To make matters just slightly more confusing, neither was even the first fuchsia recorded as being grown in England. About 1730, Phillip Miller (see also), the head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden, received seeds shipped from "Carthagena in New Spain" from fellow Scotsman and botanist William Houstoun (see also). That fuchsia, arguably identified as F. triphylla, was apparently successfully grown there for a number of years before it disappeared from cultivation. Since Miller was head gardener at Chelsea from 1722 to 1771, it's unclear at what date it was lost. Most importantly, however, Houston's fuchsia was apparently never cultivated except at Chelsea by Miller before it was lost. It was either F. coccinea or F. magellanica that would first enter general English horticulture. But which one, though?Considering the extensive British contacts with Chile over the two hundred years previous to 1789, an earlier arrival of the species from the Magellanic region into English gardens, than the one from Brazil, is not illogical. Even a much earlier arrival. F. magellanica had, after all, already been collected by George Handisyd (see also) in 1690 and had already appeared—at the very least—as a dried specimen in Sir Hans Sloan's herbarium; it's also winter hardy enough to have thrived outdoors in many places in the British Isles, unnoticed and unrecorded by the botanical establishment in London, for many decades before it suddenly burst onto the fashionable garden scene in the 1790's or later. It was much hardier than the competition, in fact, in spite of contemporary misconceptions of F. magellanica as a tender plant, an indication again of its confusion with F. coccinea. While the real F. coccinea was mostly confined to overwintering in hothouses with stoves, it's certainly F. magellanica and its hybrids, perhaps even with F. coccinea, that are so widely naturalized in favorable regions all over the British Isles today.Oddly for a sailor with the rank of Captain, naval or otherwise, no other documentary evidence to Captain Firth's identity has ever turned up. Not even the hint of a christian name. Whatever the truth, the myth or perhaps half-memory of a sea captain logically points to the arrival of fuchsias into English gardens via the extensive British maritime network of the age, stretching not just to South America but literally around the globe. Officers of British vessels, both royal and merchant, were explicitly expected to be on the look-out for anything that might prove useful or interesting to Britain and return home with samples or reports. Kew was, of course, the frequent recipient of many botanical novelties. As was also the Chelsea Physic Garden. And sailors did often return from their long journeys with exotic gifts and souvenirs for their friends and family. See also Handisyd; Miller; Sloane.
(Illustrations: 1. Portrait of the mysterious Captain Firth; 2. Rigobert Bonne & Guillaume Raynal, Carte du Chili depuis le sud du Pérou jusqu'au Cap Horn avec partie des regions qui en sont à l'est, Atlas de Toutes les Parties Connues du Globe Terrestre, 1780; 3. Landscape with Cottage, Thomas Gainsborough, ca. 1780; 4. a British frigate, W.F. Mitchell, 1780.)
Fischer, Paul – Swiss photographer who aided J. Francis Macbride (see also) in his ten-year project to photograph type specimens in most major European herbaria. F. fischerii (Macbride 1941) is now synonymous with F. mathewsii (Macbride 1940). See F. mathewsii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Fischerii – Named in honor of Paul Fischer. F. fischerii (Macbride 1941) is a synonym of F. mathewsii (Macbride 1940). See Fischer; Mathews; and F. mathewsii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Flexuous – Winding from side to side; sinuous.
Flor de arete – Earring flower (Spanish); common name for the fuchsia in some parts of Latin America.
Flor de nácar – Nacre or mother-of-pearl flower (Spanish); common name rarely applied to the fuchsia in some parts of Latin America. Flor de nácar is more properly and usually applied to Hoya carnosa, or the wax plant.
Floriferous – Flowering freely; bearing many flowers.
Flower Bud – The developing and unopened blossom. In fuchsias, the differing shapes and colors of flower buds just before they open are a defining characteristic of many cultivars and often very useful in determining the identity of unknown plants.
(Illustration: Fuchsia 'Zulu King'.)
Foliar Feeding – Sprays or mists containing mild solutions of nutrients are often applied topically to be absorbed directly through the plant's leaves rather than through its roots. Fuchsias respond well to foliar feeding but care should be taken to make sure that the solution used is not so strong as possibly to burn delicate leaves and shoots.
Fontinalis – From fountains or springs. See F. fontinalis (J.F.Macbr. 1940) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms are recorded for this species.
Form or Forma – (Plural: forms or formae) In taxonomy, a form is an infraspecific category below a variety (see also), indicating a noticeable but minor deviation. The designation is often considered unnecessary by botanists as there can be almost countless forms based on very minor genetic differences.Forster, John Reinhold (1729-1798) and George Forster (1754-1794) – [German: Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster.] On Captain James Cook's second voyage (1772-75), the German-Scottish naturalists, John Reinhold Forster and his son, George, were chosen to replace Joseph Banks (see also) when he withdrew. They collected specimens of F. excorticata at Queen Charlotte Sound in New Zealand, either during November 1773 or October-November 1774, one of the two periods when they were able to go ashore to botanize there. They dedicated their published description to John Forster's friend, the Rev. Richard Skinner, as Skinnera excorticata in 1776 (see also Skinnera). They were not aware or perhaps didn't recognize that the same plant had already been discovered by Banks and Daniel Solander (see also) on the first Cook voyage (1768-1771). While Agapanthus calciflorous had been provisionally penciled in on the back of the Banks & Solander manuscript drawing of their previous collection, that name was never validly published by them. The Foster's Skinnera excorticata would be moved to Fuchsia in 1781 by Carl Linnaeus the Younger when he recognized its connection with the genus. See ➤ Section Skinnera.
(Illustration: Poe-Bird, New Zealand. James Cook, A Voyage Towards the South Pole, and Round the World, 1777. This plate of Skinnera excorticata (F. excorticata) is one of five botanicals in the volume taken from the Forsters but not attributed to them due to a dispute with Cook and the Admiralty over the joint authorship of the expedition's journal.)Fosbergii – Named in honor of the distinguished American botanist, F. (Francis) Raymond Fosberg (1908-1993). Known as Ray, Fosberg received a B.A. in Botany at Pomona College in 1930 and then worked as a plant researcher at the Los Angeles County Museum. There he specialized in plants from the islands on the coast of California, as well as from the desert Southwest. Interested in island ecosystems, he moved to the University of Hawaii in 1932 where he received an invitation to join the Mangarevan Expedition, led by the malacologist Charles Montague Cooke, Jr. That expedition visited twenty-five high islands and thirty-one coral islands, and returned to Hawaii with some 15,000 plant specimens. Fosberg later received an M.S. in Botany from the University of Hawaii in 1937and a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1939. Later he worked at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) where he was sent to Colombia to identify stands of Cinchona for quinine production as part of the American war effort. After World War II, he was part of a survey of economic resources in the Micronesian Islands. Starting in 1951, Fosberg spent the next fifteen years at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) mapping the military geology of islands in the Pacific.In 1966, he joined the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History in the tropical biology branch of the Ecology Program. He transferred to the Department of Botany as a curator in 1968 and was appointed Senior Botanist in 1976. Over a span of sixty-two years, Fosberg comprehensively and meticulously documented his many activities in one hundred twenty-nine field books (1931-1993) and, even as curator emeritus, remained and active and vigorous collector right up until his death in 1993. While on the botanizing trip to South America on the look-out or Cinchona trees for the USDA in 1945, Fosberg collected a fuchsia near Loja in Ecuador. The specimen would remain in the herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution until it was described as a new species in his honor by Munz in 1972. Unfortunately, F. fosbergii is now a synonym of F. harlingii (Munz 1972) in ➤ Section Fuchsia but a number of other plants named in his honor remain valid.
(Illustration: 1. Detail of F. Raymond Fosberg in the field. Kjell Bloch Sandved, Smithsonian Archives, 92-1712; 2. Detail of an entry in one of Fosberg's notebooks. 3. Isotype of F. fosbergii, now a synonym of F. harlingii, preserved at the Smithsonian's National Herbarium.)Fuchs, Leonart (1501-1566) – Fuchs was the very eminent German physician and professor after whom the genus Fuchsia was baptized by Charles Plumier. He had occupied the chair of medicine at the University of Tübingen and authored the seminal De Historia Stirpium in 1542. Along with Otto Brunfels (1489–1534) and Hieronymus Bock (1498–1554), also called Hieronymus Tragus, he is considered one of the three fathers of botany. Euphony aside, one wishes that more could be said about Fuchs regarding the plant named in his honor but the reality is that the connection is more or less arbitrary. It's interesting to speculate, however, just how aware he was of the amazing botanical riches from the New World rapidly approaching on the western horizon. Among other novelties, he didrecognize Zea mays in his herbal but sadly didn't get his information completely in order; as Turkish Corn, he placed it as a native of conventionally exotic Turkey rather than the Americas. Then again, the newly introduced Turkey Fowl also suffered from the same contemporary misconception of the East, as the source of all things mysterious and exotic, or it might have been called the Mexico Fowl instead.
Fuchsia (m.) – In French, le fuchsia is a masculine noun. At the beginning of the 19th century, la fuchsia (f.) was common in French but this later changed, possibly to reflect that the genus was named to honor Leonard Fuchs and Fuchsia might be considered a masculine noun of the first declension in botanical Latin. Other plants, such as le begonia, are similarly constructed. In some early publications, the linguistically modified word Fuchsie may be found in sections of French text in opposition to the scientific name Fuchsia used in the Latin descriptions.
The Fuchsia - The Fuchsia is a poem by American poet Matty Reynolds (b. 1973) which begins, "I want to buy you, A fuchsia to hang, My heart from…" ➤ The Fuchsia.The Fuchsia Band – An Irish folk music group from Cork, Ireland. The Fuchsia Band's four members are Brian McGillicuddy, Máirtin de Cógáin, Eoin Verling and Michael Hefferman and their energetic performances feature traditional Irish music, story, song and dance. See ➤ band website.
Fuchsia (British band) – A British progressive folk band that released one eponymous album in 1970 before disappearing that same year. Their name was taken from Fuchsia Groan (see also).
Fuchsia Begonia – Begonia fuchsioides. See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Fuchsia Bush, Fuchsia Emu Bush – Common name for the Australian native, Eremophila maculata, in its home country. It's also occasionally called "Wild Fuchsia" in Austrailia. See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Fuchsia City – Japanese セキチクシティ or Sekichiku City. A location within the popular video game series, Pokémon, published by Nintendo. Fuchsia City refers to the color magenta and not to the plants.Fuchsia Dell – Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. Originally called the Golden Gate Fuchsia Grove, the Fuchsia Dell was established in 1940 with fuchsias that might have been recycled from those used extensively at the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition, perhaps at the urging of Alice Eastwood (see also). Most of the plantings in the park suffered severely from the accidental introduction of the Fuchsia Gall Mite (see also) in 1981. Despite heroic efforts by park staff to keep the mite at bay, the Fuchsia Dell was dealt another near fatal blow by destructive storms in 1995 and the Dell's sign was removed. The next year, however, Peter Baye, a botanist at the Strybing Arboretum in Golden Gate Park, and members of the American Fuchsia Society were instrumental in reestablishing the Fuchsia Dell with plantings from the botanical garden, including many mite-resistant species along with mite-resistant hybrids developed by Baye. See visit to the ➤ Strybing Arboretum and the Fuchsia Dell.
Fuchsia Dunlop – See Fuchsia (Personal Names).
Fuchsia (Film) – Title of a 2009 Filipino drama-comedy film. Fuchsia was directed by Joel Lamangan and stars Gloria Romero, Eddie Garcia, and Robert Arevalo.
Fuchsia Flash – Quarterly newsletter of the Northwest Fuchsia Society (USA).Fuchsia Gall Mite – Aculops fuchsiae. First reported in San Francisco in 1981, the fuchsia gall mite is a minute pest that seems to have been accidentally introduced into the Bay Area from its native Brazil about 1980. Easily carried along by hummingbirds and bees, it has radiated from San Francisco. Recently, it has also made an unfortunate appearance in Europe, first among the fuchsias of Brittany and the Loire Valley in 2003, then the Channel Islands in 2006, and now the United Kingdom about 2007. The Fuchsia Gall Mite causes severe contortions and malformations to appear at the ends of the branches of susceptible plants. That unattractive condition lead to a severe declinein fuchsias on the West Coast of the United States as many grand shrubs were simply ripped out. The mites won't easily survive temperatures under 40°F (5°C), though, and there are fortunately some simple treatments and cultivation techniques to help keep the galling under control on susceptible plants. There are now also an increasingly diverse number of attractive hybrids, incorporating resistant or immune species, available from nurseries as well.
(Illustration: 1, Fuchsia gall mite damage on 'Swingtime'; 2. 'Del Campo,' a gall mite resistant cultivar developed by Peter Baye at the Strybing Arboretum.)
Fuchsia Groan – Fuchsia Groan is the name of a fictional character in Mervyn Peake's novels Titus Groan (1946) and Gormenghast (1950). She is the daughter of Sepulchrave, the 76th Earl of Groan. The character was played by Scottish actress Neve McIntosh (b. 1972) in a BBC film adaptation in 2000. Fuchsia Groan is also the subject of song by the rock band, The Cure, called The Drowning Man.
Fuchsia Hedges in Connacht – A poem by the Irish poet, Padraic Colum (1881-1972), which begins, "I think some saint of Eirinn wandering far, found you and brought you here Demoiselles! For so I greet you in this alien air…" As well as a poet, Colum was a celebrated novelist, dramatist, biographer, playwright, children's author and collector of folklore and is considered one of the leading figures of the Irish Literary Revival. ➤ Fuchsia Hedges in Connacht.Fuchsia in all the Languages of the World – Since Linnaeus introduced the binomial system of plant classification, the correct scientific name of the genus is always Fuchsia. This denomination from botanical Latin often also serves as a common name. However, many languages have quite different orthographic rules than are found in English and must necessarily alter the spelling outside of scientific use. In languages that don't use the Latin alphabet, there is additionally an attempt at a phonetic transliteration. However, not all sounds found in Latin are to be found in all languages and, when no exactly corresponding letters are available, the equivalence must be shifted slightly. Or perhaps even an evocative new name created. Chinese is a good example. Because that language's written characters are based on logograms and not a phonetic alphabet, a wonderful new name of the Hanging Lantern Flower has come into being among Chinese readers.
(Illustration: Brueghel's Tower of Babel, 1563.)
- Arabic - ضارب الى الحمرة
- Armenian - գոյական փուքսենի
- Basque - Fuksia
- Belarusian - Фуксія (Fuksiya)
- Bulgarian - Обичка (Obychka)
- Breton - Fuchia; also kleierigoù-ruz or kloc'higoù-ruz
- Catalan – Fúcsia
- Chinese - 吊灯花: Diàodēnghuā or Hanging Lantern Flower;
倒挂金钟: Zhonghai Tang or Hanging Fuchsia Begonia Lantern;
晚樱科植物: Wǎnyīnɡkēzhíwù or Late Cherry Plants.
- Croatian – Fuksija
- Czech – Fuchsie
- Esperanto - Fuksio
- Estonian – Fuksia
- Finnish - Fuksia; also Verenpisarat
- Galician – Fúcsia
- Georgian - ფუქსია (Puqsia)
- German – Fuchsie
- Portuguese – Fúcsia; also brinco-de-princessa, bochechudo, mimo
- Priulian - Fucsia
- Quechua (Inca) - Chiyu
- Romanian – Fucsie, cerceluş
- Russian – Фуксия (Fuksiya)
- Serbian – Фуксија (Fuksija)
- Slovak – Fuchsie
- Slovenian - Fuksija
- Spanish – Fucsia; also pendientes de la reina, chilco, aljaba
- Swedish – Fuchsia; also fuchsiasläktet
- Tajik - Гуловез
- Thai - โคมญี่ปุ่น
- Tibetan - མངར་དྲིལ།
- Turkish - Küpe çiçeği or Küpeçiçeği
- Ukranian - Фуксія (Fuksiya)
- Urdu - فشیا
- Vietnamese - Cây khoa vản anh
- Welsh - Ffiwsia; also dropys cochion
- Yiddish – פוטשסיאַ
- Zulu - Uhlobo lwembali
- Greek - Φουξία (Phoysia)
- Hebrew - פוקסיה (Foksih)
- Hawaiian - Kulapepeiao
- Hindi – फ़ूशिया (Phūhaṛa)
- Hungarian – Fukszia
- Ido - Fuxio
- Irish - Fiúsie
- Italian - Fucsia
- Japanese –フクシア( Fukushia)
- Korean - 푸크시아 (Pukeusiah)
- Latin - Fuchsia
- Latvian – Fuksija
- Limburgian - Foksia
- Lithuanian – Fuksija
- Macedonian – Обичка (Obička)
- Malayalam - ഫ്യൂഷിയ
- Maltese - Fuxa
- Manx - Thammag vineenagh, jeiryn yee
- Norwegain - Fuksia; also Tårer
- Persian - گل گوشواره
- Philipino - Pusiya
- Polish – Fuksja; also ułanka
The Fuchsia is Now – Illustrated children's book by J. Otto Seibold published in 2006. The simple story features Fuchsia who receives a pink hat, which makes her look somewhat like the flower, as a birthday surprise from her small friends. The hat contains a fairy who grants her wishes when she repeats the title phrase, "The fuchsia is now". The book is intended for very young children between the ages of three and five. Seibold is also the primary illustrator and co-author of several other children's books, such as Olive, My Love. ➤ The Fuchsia is Now.Fuchsia Lore – Objects, or a collection of objects, with fuchsias as the theme. Fuchsia Lore can encompass almost anything from porcelain, glass, and quilts to paintings, botanical illustrations and postage stamps as long as fuchsias are illustrated on the object in some way; Also sometimes termed Fuchsiana. (Illustration: Detail of the Fuchsia pattern on a 12" vase (No. 903) from Roseville Pottery in 1939.)
Fuchsia (Personal Names) – Due to the popularity of the flower–and the word's association with the vibrant pink-purple color magenta–Fuchsia has occasionally been adopted as an especially female forename both in fiction and in reality. For example, Fuchsia Groan appears as the name of a fictional character in Mervyn Peake's novels Titus Groan (1946) and Gormenghast (1950). A prominent example from real life is Fuchsia Dunlop, an English writer and chef specializing in Chinese cuisine. In another instance, the British musician, Sting (Gordan Summer, b. 1951), and his first wife, the actress Frances Tornelty (b. 1948) named their second child "Fuchsia Catherine" in 1982.
Fuchsia Research International – A organization based in the United Kingdom that was dedicated to the study and research of fuchsia species. FRI published the Journal of Fuchsia Research and maintained the National Collection of Fuchsia Species at Margham Park. It was dissolved in 2008 and its plant collection transferred to the Arboretum de Chèvreloup at Versailles for preservation.
Fuchsia Rust – Pucciniastrum epilobii. Fuchsia rust is the most serious disease that might affect fuchsias. It alternates its cycle between the willowherb or fireweed, (Epilobium angustifolium but now Chameron angustifolium), a close relation to the fuchsia, and the fir tree (Abies). Spores can travel distances on the wind and outbreaks generally occur late in the season. Rust is difficult to control once it's established so it's generally recommended to regularly monitor plants for the characteristic orange pustules and pick off infected leaves, if in rust prone areas with firs and fireweed, and then spray with an appropriate fungicide, such as Bayleton's. The disease will easily carry into the next year if plants are not properly treated before winter.
Fuchsia (Sinfest) – A character in the webcomic, ➤ Sinfest, started by American artist Tatsya Ishida. Fuchsia is described as "Previously a stereotypical succubus. [She] fell in love with the kind-hearted Criminy and quit her job to pursue a normal life. Enjoys painting but suffers flashbacks about her previous employment."
Fuchsia Societies – See ➤ Fuchsia Societies for a full list.
Fuchsia Websites – See ➤ Fuchsia Societies and ➤ Personal Websites for full lists.
Fuchsiaceae – Invalid plant family. The genus Fuchsia belongs to the Onagraceae, or Evening Primrose Family. Fuchsiaceae was created by the Swedish botanist and man of letters, Nils Lilja (1808-1870), in the substantially reworked second edition of his Skånes flora (Flora of Scania, 1838) released in 1870. The colorful Lilja also had a penchant for creating new genera out of old fuchsias. See Lilja.
Fuchsiaeflora – See Fuchsiiflora.
Fuchsian Group – Nothing to do with fuchsias at all. It's simply a geometry term for any discrete group of isometries of the hyperbolic plane.
Fuchsiana – 1. Things related to fuchsias; 2. Fuchsia lore (see also); 3. The name of the bimonthly publication of the Nederlandse Kring van Fuchsiavrienden.
Fuchsiarama – This amusingly named fuchsia nursery was once located in Fort Bragg, California, on the scenic California Highway 1. It specialized in hardy and heat-resistant cultivars suited to the California climate, especially the hot, dry areas away from the coast. The nursery was suddenly closed in 2010.
Fuchsie (f.), Fuchsien (pl.) – German for fuchsia.
Fuchsii – Named in honor of Fuchs, usually meaning Leonart Fuchs (see also). Plants with this species designation, such as the bromeliad, Tillandsia fuchsii, or the common spotted lily, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, have nothing to do with the genus Fuchsia. Both epithets are simply derived from the same German surname.Fuchsiiflora – Flowered like a fuchsia; fuchsia flowered. Not applied to Fuchsia but a few other genera contain members that are described as fuchsia-flowered. The most notable is perhaps Passiflora fuchsiiflora (Hemsley 1898). As the accompanying botanical illustration attests, its long-tubed orange-scarlet flowers do indeed bear a superficially uncanny resemblance to those of number of Fuchsia. Also sometimes rendered fuchsiaeflora
(Illustration: Passiflora fuchsiiflora. Matilda Smith (1854–1926), Hooker’s Icones Plantarum, 1898, vol. 26, table 2553).
Fuchsiifolia – Having leaves resembling those of the genus Fuchsia. A notable example is Cuphea fuchsiifolia (A.St.-Hil. 1833), a plant native to Brazil in the Lythraceae or Loosestrife Family.Fuchsine – (Often incorrectly spelled fuchsin.) Trade name for a synthetic analine dye, rosaniline hydrochloride, producing a deep red or magenta color. Starting in the early 1880s, the colors it produced were also often termed "fuchsia-red" or just "fuchsia." The name was coined by the French manufacturer Renard Frères et Franc in 1859. A marketing ploy, the firm's choice was statedly influenced by the fact that fuchsias were simply a very popular and fashionable garden plant—ignoring the inconvenience of their actual color—and that Fuchs translates into French as Renard (Fox). Interestingly, the original association of the chemical name is to the bright pink of the rose. Magenta, the synonymous contemporary trade name for the same dye in England, was a similar ploy to cash in on the famous Battle of Magenta in Italy in 1859 during which Napolean III achieved a renowned military victory over the Austrians. See Magenta; ➤ The Color Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Basic fuchsine in an aqueous solution. ➤ Wikipedia.)
Fuchsioides – Resembling a fuchsia. A number of genera contain species which were described as resembling the fuchsia. The most common and widely recognized is perhaps Begonia fuchsioides (Hooker 1847). Others include a member of the Solanaceae or Nightshade Family, Lochroma fuchsioides (Bonpland, Miers 1848), and the more-recent Palicourea fuchsioides (C.M. Taylor 1999), a member of the Rubiaceae, or Coffee Family.
Fuchsiology– The science and study of fuchsias. A fuchsiologist is one who studies fuchsias.
Fuchsior – Fuchsias (pl.) in Swedish.
Fucsia – No, spellings such as this are not always a mistake outside of English. Fuchsia is commonly written this way in Spanish (or a number of other languages) because of its standardized orthography. In scientific publications and references the correct spelling of the genus still applies, however. In Spanish, additionally, it's la fucsia (f.) but often el [color] fucsia (m.) might be used to indicate the color. See also Fuchsia in all the Languages of the World, Misspellings.Fulgens – Shiny or shining; glowing. F. fulgens is native to Mexico where it was first collected around 1790 by the Mexican botanists, José Mariano Mociño (1757-1820) and Martín de Sessé y Lacasta (1751-1808), during the course of the ambitious botanizing campaign known as the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain. This seminal expedition had been organized and directed by Sessé in various phases from about 1787-1803 and was undertaken with the financial support of the royal government in Madrid. At the end of the Expedition, the botanists journeyed to Spain to get support for the publication of the Expedition's work. This quest was unsuccessful, however, and the invaluable collections, botanical illustrations and papers would become ignored and scattered due to war and political upheavals and remain published until posthumous attempts in Mexico in the 1880s. Mociño was forced to flee Spain in 1812 but managed to take some part of the work, on which he continued to labor after Sessé's death in 1808, into exile with him in France. In Montpellier, the physically declining Mociño met the Swiss botanist, Augustin-Pyrame de Candolle of Geneva, who utilized Mociño's notes and illustrations to describe and publish a number of new plants, including F. fulgens in 1828, in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. LIving material of F. fulgens, which grows natively as an epiphyte or among rocks in moist areas, also made its way to Europe and the United States by 1835 and 1836. The easily grown species quickly became quite fashionable in greenhouses and with florists, as evidenced by many references and illustrations in widely disseminated horticultural publications of the period. It's also been speculated that many garden hybrids are "probably of hybrid derivation from forms of F. magellanica and F. fulgens" (Bailey, Hortus, 264. 1930). As there are very few records of the actual parentage of most all early hybrids, this speculation must remain speculation. Ellobium fulgens (Lilja 1841), F. fulgens var. pumila (Carrière 1881), F. racemosa (Sessé & Moç. 1888) and Spachia fulgens (DC.) Lilja 1840) are all synonyms for this species. See F. fulgens in ➤ Section Ellobium; also see Candolle, Ellobium, Mociño, Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain, Sessé, Spachia.
(Illustration: The Flower Girl, Charles Cromwell Ingham, 1846. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, acc. no. 02.7.1.)
Furfuracea – Having a meal or scurf; having a flaky surface. See F. furfuracea (I.M.Johnst. 1925) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. No synonyms are recorded for this species.
Fusca – Brown, dusky. F. fusca (E.H.L.Krause 1906) is a synonym of F. decussata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Fuschia – See Misspellings.
Fusia – Very occasionally seen spelling of fuchsia in Spanish.
Fusiform – Shaped like a fusil or spindle; tapering at each end.
Fuxia – Alternative spelling for fucsia (see also).
- G - HGadsby, Clifford (1920-1978) – British fuchsia breeder who was responsible for over eighty cultivars registered between 1968 and 1980. Among his many achievements are Bishop's Bells, Bon Accorde, Caroline, Chillerton Beauty, Cliff’s Hardy, Cloverdale Pearl, Forward Look, Grace Darling, Lady Isobel Barnett, Lady Thumb, Jean Burton, Prosperity, Rosedale, Strawberry Delight, Upward Look and White Bride. He bred many upright plants that were especially vigorous growers, free-flowering and self-branching, and single flowers which were noted for their long curving sepals and often bell-shaped corollas. After his death, the British Fuchsia Society established the Cliff Gadsby Medal in his honor.
Gall Mite – See Fuchsia Gall Mite.
Garlepp, Gustav (1862-1897) – Garlepp was a German plant, insect and bird hunter active in South America from 1883-1897. See F. garleppiana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Garleppiana – Named in honor of Gustav Garlepp (1862-1897). See: Garlepp; F. garleppiana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Gehriger, Wilhelm (dates unknown) – Wilhelm Gehriger (dates unknown) was an obscure plant collector who was active in Venezuela and adjacent areas in Brazil mostly between 1929 and 1931. Gehriger made numerous collections during those years, especially in the region around Mérida, which are now housed in various American herbaria. His specimens are sometimes recorded in association with the prominent American ornithologist Ernest G. Holt (1889-1983), as part of the National Geographic Society Boundary Survey undertaken in Venezuela during the same years as Gehriger's activity. He is also noted collecting in association with the eminent Swiss-born engineer, geographer and botanist Henri Pittier (1857-1950), "Father" of Venezuela's national park system and after whom the Henri Pittier National Park was named. Outside of his actual collections, and a single folder containing specimen lists located in the Smithsonian Archives, almost nothing is recorded on Gehriger but he does to have lent invaluable assistance to other researchers exploring in that country and a good number of his collections are now type specimens. His collection of a fuchsia from Murcurubé in Mérida (Venezuela) in 1930 would be described in his honor, without comment unfortunately, by Munz in 1943 from the type deposited with the U. S. National Herbarium. This same fuchsia was apparently collected by Alfredo Jahn Hartman already in 1921. It would be described by Munz as F. jahnii in the same publication in 1942. However, F. jahnii is now synonymous with F. gehrigeri (Berry 1982). See F. gehrigeri in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Gehrigeri – Named in honor of Wilhelm Gehriger (dates unknown). See: Gehriger; F. gehrigeri in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Genera – Latin plural of genus (see also).Genes – The individual genetic units strung along in the chromosome which each express particular characteristics or traits of the plant.
Genotype – A plant's characteristics as laid out in its inherited genetic code. This is different from a phenotype (see also).
Genus – (Pl. genera or genuses.) A grouping of several closely related species. The genus is a low level grouping but certainly the most primary as it has served as a sort of surname for all plants in its group since Linnaeus. A plant's species classification is placed immediately after the genus and related genera are grouped into families. The genus Fuchsia, belonging to the Onagraceae, or Evening Primrose Family, currently consists of over a hundred species.Geraniums – Fuchsias and Germaniums. Geraniums and Fuchsias. Many European horticultural societies and garden groups are surprisingly dedicated to growing both fuchsias and geraniums, the latter also known by their more proper botanical name, pelargoniums. This odd coupling dates back to the early nineteenth century when both plants were fairly new but had quickly become two of the most fashionable and popular potted plants for the parlor windowsill, conservatory and summer garden. Because of some similarities in over-wintering in a cool greenhouse or windowsill, they soon become linked in popular perceptions, despite the fact that geraniums prefer it sunny, hot and dry and fuchsias like their climate very much more cool, moist and shady. Treatment aside, it was probably contemporary snob appeal that seems to have originally joined the pair so inseparably more than anything else. The Florist and Garden Miscellany of 1850, for example, specifically points to parapet walls "ornamented at intervals with vases filled with Scarlet Geraniums, Fuchsias, etc." as part of the "noble effect" of one flower garden. What Victorian could resist such a warrant for one's own well-bred garden? The odd pair have endured until today.
(Illustration: Bouquet of fuchsias and geramiums.)
Giant Genus – A genus that contains five hundred or more species. At about 110 species, the term does not apply to Fuchsia.
Glaberrima – Smooth. See F. glaberrima in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Glaziou, August (1828-1906) – Auguste François Marie Glaziou (1828-1906). Glaziou was a French landscape designer and botanist. At the request of Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II, he came to Rio de Janeiro in 1858 to be director of parks and gardens. See F. glazioviana in ➤ Section Quelusia. See F. glazioviana in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Glazioviana – Named in honor of Auguste François Marie Glaziou (1828-1906). See: Galziou; F. glazioviana in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Globifera – Bearing a round head or sphere. An unresolved fuchsia species F. globifera (Jasques 1835) published in Ann. Fl. Pomone 1834-1835: 246 1835.
Globosa – Spherical. F. globosa (Lindley 1833) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Gracilis – Graceful, slender. F. gracilis (Lindley 1824), F. gracilis var. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavon, Lindley 1827), F. gracilis var. multiflora (Lindley 1827) and F. gracilis var. tenella (Lindley 1827) are all synonyms of F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia. F. gracilis (Moç. & Sessé ex DC 1828) is invalid and a synonym of F. microphylla (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Grandiflora – Having large flowers. F. grandiflora (Ruiz & Pavon) is an unresolved name.
Golden Fuchsia – Usually intended to mean Deppea splendens (see also). Rare in cultivation, it's a member of the Coffee Family and now extinct in the wild. See the entry in this Dictionary on Faux Fuchsias as well as the page at ➤ Faux Fuchsias.Green, Dave (d. 2013) – Ardent amateur British plant collector of fuchsia species in South America. Green and his wife, Eileen Waters, undertook several fuchsia-hunting expeditions to the Andes, where they even discovered a novel species, F. aquaviridis. It was to be described in honor of the couple by Dr. Paul Berry, the leading scientific expect publishing on the genus, in 2007. Greatly concerned with preserving fuchsias and their habitat, he founded the Fuchsia Species Conservation Alliance (FUSCA). Unfortunately, the group now seems defunct with his recent death. Green also published a large paperback book, Fuchsia Species, on his collecting work and other information on the genus in 2011. See Aquaviridis; Fuchsia Species Conservation Alliance.
(Illustration: Dave Green collecting F. apetala in Peru.)
Green, Dave, and Eileen Waters – See Aquaviridis.
Gynodioecious, Gynodioecism – A dimorphic breeding system in plants in which the species population is divided into individuals with pistillate or female flowers that coexist with hermaphroditic individuals. Some fuchsias, such as F. microphylla, exhibit this evolutionary adaptation. (See also Dioecious, Perfect Flowers.)
Hamellioides – Resembling plants of the genus Hamellia (properly Hamelia), also known as firebush or hummingbird bush. F. hamellioides (Moc. & Sessé ex G. Don 1832) is a synonym of F. paniculata (Lindley 1856) in ➤ Section Schufia.
Handisyd, George (flourished ca. 1670-1700?) – Ship's surgeon aboard the British East Indiaman Modena who made the earliest recorded collection of plants in the Tierra de Fuego sometime just before July, 1690. Little is known of Handisyd (modern spelling Handyside) except that he sent the botanic specimens he collected in the Magellanic region and elsewhere on to his friend Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the noted British physician and collector. Among the Handisyd collections preserved with Sloane's autograph notes on folio 128 in the eighth volume of his herbarium—now held by the Natural History Museum in London—is the earliest known specimen of a plant that was later to be published by Lamarck (1774-1829) as F. magellanica in 1788. The accompanying note in Sloane's hand reads, "This Mr. Handisyd gathered in the streights of Magellan. It bears a figg as he told me which was eatable on it fed blackbirds it grew to the heighth of a small tree, it had a green bark & brittle wood." Interestingly, Handisyd also sent plant specimens to Sloane from New England, Barbados and Jamaica, as well as Hispaniola, where Charles Plumier was botanizing at about the same period. See also Sloane.Hanging Lantern Flower – 吊 灯 花 or Diàodēnghuā. Novel descriptive name coined for the fuchsia in Chinese.
(Illustration: Red bud-like lanterns outside a Chinese temple above, and real fuchsia buds below.)
Hardwood Cutting – A cutting taken, usually in the very late summer or fall, from ripened wood on the current year's growth. Such cuttings can also be taken when the plant is dormant and has shed its leaves. Fuchsias, in fact, can often be propagated from even older wood simply by sticking plain fresh hardwood sticks into an appropriate rooting material or even the ground. Such sticks, sometimes referred to a pencils, are an easy way to transport fuchsias for propagation elsewhere with greatly reduced risks of also transporting insects or disease when properly treated and sanitized. (See also The Urban Fuchsia Blog ➤ Of Pencils and Plants.)
Harling, Gunnar Wilhelm (1920-2010) – Harling was a Swedish botanist who collected widely on expeditions in Ecuador and was the author of an acclaimed work on the plants of that country, Flora of Ecuador. He was an assistant at the Bergius Botanic Garden from 1950 to 1952, associate professor of botany at the University of Stockholm from 1951–1963 and professor of botany at the University of Gothenburg, where he was also director of the Botanic Museum of Gothenburg, from 1964 until his retirement. See F. harlingii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Harlingii – Named in honor of Gunnar Wilhelm Harling (1920-2010). See: Harling; F. harlingii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Harlow Carr National Collection of Fuchsia sect. Quelusia – See National Collections (UK).
Hartweg, Karl Theodor (1812-1871) – Hartweg was a German botanist and horticulturalist who collected numerous new species in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and California in the United States for the Horticultural Society of London. Among his collections in South America were a number of fuchsias. After the expedition to California in1846, he returned to Germany where he became director of the splendid gardens at Schwetzingen Palace for the Grand Duke of Baden, a post he held until his death. See F. hartwegii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Hartwegii – Named in honor of Karl Theodor Hartweg (1812-1871). See: Hartweg; F. hartwegii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Hardy Fuchsia – Occasionally used as a common name for F. magellanica and its similarly appearing hybrids and garden selections.
Hardy Fuchsias or Hardies – Fuchsias that will overwinter successfully in the ground outdoors. This is generally in areas with a UDSA climate zone from about 7 to about 9 or 10. A number of factors besides average low temperatures, such as summer heat or winter wet, must also be taken into account when rating the cold hardiness and winter survival of fuchsias in any climate. In the colder parts of their range, they will die back to the ground and sprout again in the spring from below ground. A number of the hardiest fuchsias, such as the Magellanica hybrids, will withstand even colder winters when sited favorably and given some winter protection. The Northwest Fuchsia Society (USA) maintains an ongoing ➤ list of fuchsias that have proven hardy over at least three winters in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Hatschbach, Gert (b. 1923) – Hatschbach is a noted Brazilian botanist and taxonomist who was instrumental in the collection and study of the flora of the state of Paraná in Brazil. He was also the founder and long-time director of the Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba at the Jardim Botânico Francisca Maria Garfunkel Richbieter in Curitiba, the capital of Paraná State. In 1989 Paul Berry dedicated a new species that he dubbed F. hatschbachii to "Gert Hatschbach, Director of the Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba, who has done more than any previous botanist to collect and study the flora of Paraná." (For a good likeness of Hatschbach see "Gerdt, o menino do dedo verde" in the ➤ Gazetta do Povo.) See F. hatschbachii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Hatschbachii – Named in honor of Gert Guenther Hatschbach (b. 1923). See: Hatschbach; F. hatschbachii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Heel – A small strip of bark that remains attached to a shoot when it's torn from a larger branch to be used for propagation. Semi-ripe cuttings are often taken with such "heels" attached.
Herbarium – (Plural herbaria, herbariums.) A collection of dried plant specimens which are mounted, labeled and systematically arranged for use in scientific study. Also the institution or place where such a collection is kept.
Hemsley, William Botting (1843-1924) – Hemsley was a botanist who published on the flora of Central America and was Keeper of the Herbarium and Library at Kew Gardens. He published a paper on "The Apetalous Fuchsias of South America" in the Journal of Botany (14:69-70) in 1875. See F. microphylla ssp hemsleyana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Hemsleyana, Hemsleyella – Named in honor of William Botting Hemsley (1843-1924). F. hemsleyana is a synonym of F. microphylla ssp. hemsleyana (Woodson & Seibert, Breedlove 1937) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Herzogii – Named in honor of the German bryologist and phytogeographer, T. K. G. Herzog (1880–1961). F. herzogii (Lew.) is an unresolved name.
Heterotricha – Differently hairy. F. heterotricha (Lundell 1940) is an unresolved name.
Hidalgensis – From the state of Hidalgo in Mexico. See F. microphylla ssp. hidalgensis in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Hirtella – Somewhat hairy, a little hairy. See F. hirtella in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Hirsuta – Hairy. F. hirsuta (Hemsley 1876) is a synonym of F. apetala (Ruiz & Pavón 1802) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Hirta – Hairy. F. hirta (Kunth ?) is an unresolved name.Hitchcock, Albert Spear (1865-1835) – Hitchcock was an American botanist who specialized in the Gaminaceae family. He first studied at Iowa State Agricultural College where he was influenced by Charles E. Bessey, a pioneer in the study of plant morphology in the United States. After receiving his M.S. degree in 1886, he taught chemistry at Iowa State University until 1889. He later served as the chief botanist for the United States Department of Agriculture from 1928-1935 and initiated the practice of using type specimens (holotypes) for plant nomenclature. His original collection of F. hitchcockii (Johnston 1925) is now synonymous with F. vulcanica (André 1888). See f. vulcanica ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Albert Hitchcock, 1924, National Photo Company Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.)
Hitchcockii – Named in honor of Alfred S. Hitchcock (1865-1835). His original collection of F. hitchcockii (Johnston 1925) is now synonymous with F. vulcanica (André 1888). See: Hitchcock; f. vulcanica ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Hoary Fuchsia – Common name for Epilobium canum (formerly Zauschneria canum), another member of the Onagraceae Family with flowers that bear a close resemblance to those of its Fuchsia relatives. Usually more commonly called the "California Fuchsia." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.Hogg, Thomas, Jr. (1819-1892) – American plantsman who ran a family nursery business in New York City during the Nineteenth Century. Thomas Hogg Jr. was born in England to a leading nurseryman, Thomas Hogg Sr. (1778-1855), who moved his family to the United States in 1820. Hogg Sr. opened a nursery and florist business in Manhattan that seems to have been originally located in the Bowery but then relocated further north to about 23rd Street and Broadway, near today's Madison Square. Business boomed but by the 1840's the firm had to move yet again even further north up the rapidly developing island. It was resettled on several acres of country land now at 79th Street on the East River. Hogg Sr. died in 1855, leaving the family business to his two sons, Thomas Jr. and James. In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln sent Hogg Jr. as a customs marshal to aid Japan. He remained until 1870, returning there briefly between 1873-75. During his time in Japan, Hogg Jr. sent many plants back to his brother James, who turned their nursery into one on the leading sources of Japanese and Asian plants in the country. If not the world. Among their many introductions to American horticulture is the hosta. About 1873, Hogg Jr., acquired the seeds of a fuchsia from Santo Domingo that turned out to be the species originally described by Charles Plumier in 1703. The introduction of F. triphylla excited much attention and quickly spread to Europe where it was used in breeding the so-called Triphylla hybrids, such as 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt' and 'Thalia,' in Germany. The Hoggs sold a number of other fuchsias from their nursery, both cultivars and species such as F. boliviana and fulgens, as well.
The standard abbreviation of this author’s name in botanical citations is T.Hogg.
(Illustration: Currier & Ives, 1862: View south from Manhattan over to Blackwell's Island (Roosevelt Island) in the East River. Hogg's Nursery was approximately a little inland from the bluff on the right, which today is at the end of East 79th Street. There was once a ferry crossing to Queens from that spot.)
Holotype – In taxonomy, the archetypical physical example of a plant or animal that was used when the species was formally described. It's either the single such example or one of several but is explicitly designated as the holotype.
Honeysuckle Fuchsia – Common name occasionally applied to F. triphylla and the triphylla hybrid group (see also), particularly usually 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt,' from the superficial resemblance of their flowers to those of the honeysuckle (Lonicera).Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817-1911) – One of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the nineteenth century. As ship's surgeon and botanist aboard the HMS Erebus and Terror, Hooker took part in the voyage of discovery to the Antarctic led by Captain James Ross from 1839-1842. From the beginning of the epic journey, which rounded the globe, Hooker collected extensively and made many new discoveries. One of the most interesting of his descriptions were of the so-called megaherbs which then grew and flowered abundantly in the acid volcanic soils and brief summers of the sub-Antarctic islands of New Zealand. His next journey was to India and the Himalayas from 1847-1851. Further expeditions would take him to Palestine (1860), Morocco (1871) and the western United States and the Rocky Mountains (1877). Hooker was a founder of geographical botany, which studies the distributions of plants and the environmental relationships that influence these distributions. He would also become one of Charles Darwin's closest friends (see also). He had already read proofs–passed to him by mutual friend Charles Lyell–of Darwin's Voyage of he Beagle while on the Antarctic expedition and Darwin would ask him to classify the plants he had collected in South America and the Galápagos Islands when Hooker returned to England. In 1859, just one month after Darwin's The Origin of Species was released, Hooker published the Introductory Essay to the Flora Tasmaniae in which he became the first scientist to publicly back Darwin's theory of natural selection. Hooker would later serve as director of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew for twenty years, having succeed his father Sir William Hooker (1785-1865) in 1865. Hooker's path crosses fuchsias quite a number of times during his long career, especially while at the Royal Botanic Gardens. F. colensoi was first published in his Handbook of the New Zealand Flora (1867) from a specimen at Kew collected by William Colenso (see also) in 1849. Long considered a species, it has since been confirmed to be a naturally occurring hybrid between F. excorticata and F. perscandens (Berry 1995). It is to Hooker, as well, that we owe the sole record of Charles Darwin's collection of a fuchsia in Chile. It would have been among the almost fifteen hundred specimens on the Beagle with which Darwin returned to England. While the actual plant has gone missing from Kew, Hooker specifically ascribes the "Fuchsia magellanica Lam. (Onagraceae). Prov. Aisén: Bahía San Andres, Península de Taito, 22 December 1834" in his Flora Antarctica (1844–47) to Darwin.
(Illustration: Portrait of Joseph Hooker. George Richmond, 1855.)
Hortensis – Of gardens, cultivated. F. × hortensis (Bergmans 1924) is an unresolved name.Houstoun, Dr. William (1695-1733) – Houstoun was a British surgeon and botanist born in Scotland who collected plants in the Caribbean, Mexico and South America. He was the first botanist to collect in the Yucatan. About 1730, he sent the seeds of a fuchsia from the port city of "Carthagena in New Spain" (Cartagena de Indias is on the Caribbean coast of Colombia and was then the capital of New Granada not New Spain) to fellow Scotsman, Philip Miller, head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden. Said to have been F. triphylla, it was apparently successfully grown by Miller for a number of years before disappearing from cultivation at some point. However, it's also possible that this fuchsia might actually have been an allied species from Section Fuchsia, such as F. nigricans, or perhaps F. gehrigeri, or even F. venusta, as Houstoun was known to have collected in Colombia and Venezuela and not Hispaniola. Houstoun also collected plant specimens for Sir Hans Sloan, the great patron of the Chelsea Physic Garden. In 1731, he was commissioned by the trustees of the Province of Georgia to collect plants for a new physic garden at Savannah but died in Jamaica before he could accomplish his mission. See Philip Miller.
(Illustration: Herman Moll, Map of the West Indies, 1715.)Hosack, Dr. David (1769-1835) – One of the most prominent New Yorkers of his time, Hosack was a leading physician, medical professor, botanist and even a noted mineralogist. He started the almost-mythical Elgin Botanic Garden in 1801 on a grant of fourteen acres from the City of New York for the teaching of his medical students and the benefit of the public. Since plants with medicinal qualities were essential to treating the ailments of patients, establishing such a garden was of great importance to Hosack. Interestingly, in the 1806 publication of the botanic garden's collection of over fifteen hundred plants, both F. coccinea and F. magellanica are listed. While the latter does have some limited medicinal effect as a diuretic, febrifuge and astringent, these mild propertiesseem not to have been recognized in Hosack's time: The shrubs were mostly grown for the fashion and beauty of their flowers. In spite of his personal means and considerable connections, Hosack was unable to maintain his private endeavor for long and the land was eventually purchased by the State of New York for the benefit of Columbia University in 1810. Today the Elgin Botanic Garden is a long-forgotten memory and Rockefeller Center rises where it once stood.
(Illustration: 1. Portrait of Dr. David Hosack. Rembradt Peele, oil on canvas, 1826; 2. Engraving of the greenhouses at the Elgin Botanic Garden in 1825. Fifth Avenue; Glances at the Vicissitudes and Romance of a World-renowned Thoroughfare, Fifth Avenue Bank of New York, 1915. From an original in the collection of the New York Historical Society, 1825.)
Huanucoensis – From Huánuco Province in Peru. See F. huanucoensis (P.E.Berry 1985) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Huilensis – From Huila Department in Colombia. F. venusta var. huilensis Munz (1943) is a synonym of Fuchsia venusta (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Hybrid – A cross between two species.
Hybrida – A hybrid; a cross between two specie. Fuchsia x hybrida (Voss 1894) is a generic botanical designation for any Fuchsia hybrid or horticultural cross.
Hypanthium – The correct scientific name for the tube, the elongated part of the fuchsia's calyx.
Hypoleuca – Very pale; off white. See F. hypoleuca (I.M.Johnston 1925) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
- I - KIncas – Even before the first fuchsias came to the attention of European botanists and explorers, F. boliviana was well known to the Incas of Peru and cultivated in the Andes regions from at least the beginning of their empire in the Twelfth Century. Probably well before. Widespread, it's still often found growing on terraces built by the Inca. Its original range is thought to have been in Southern Peru, Bolivia and Northern Argentina but it's now naturalized all the way to Colombia and Venezuela, and even into Central America. Beside relishing the fruit for eating, artistic depictions also occur on Inca pottery and painted wooden bowls. There is some thought that F. boliviana might have additionally had some ritual significance. Indeed, it is one of the characteristic plants found along the roads and paths to Machu Pichu. Native names for this species in the Quechua language of the Incas include quwapaq ñukch'u, chimpu-chimpu and uchu-uchu.
(Illustration: Inca painted wooden beaker, or Kero. Peru, Colonial Inca, late 17th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, ➤ Acc. no. 1994.35.26.)
Index Kewensis (IK) – The central registry maintained by the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew (see also) that seeks to include all botanical plant names on the generic level and below. The project was started about 1880 and uses the publication of Linnaeus' Systema Natura in 1753 as the starting point. Its first publication was in 1895. The Index Kewensis was never finalized but there is now an online database called the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) published in collaboration with the Harvard University Herbaria and the Australian National Herbarium that seeks to complete the registry.
Inflata – Inflated, swollen. See F. inflata (Schulze-Menz 1940) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Inflorescence – A flower cluster.
Insignis – Remarkable, exceptional, extraordinary, distinguished or notable. See F. insignis (Helmsley 1876) in➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Integrifolia – Entire leaves; undivided. F. integrifolia (Cambess. 1830) is a synonym of F. regia (Vand. ex Vell., Munz 1943) in
Intercalary – Pertaining to the meristem: situated between areas of permanent tissue. For example, intercalary growth from the base of a leaf in contrast to apical growth from the apex or tip of a plant's roots or shoots.
Intermedia – A hybrid or intermediate form. F. intermedia (Hemsley 1878) is a synonym of F. splendens (Zucc. 1832).
International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) – The ➤ International Organization of Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) was founded in 1950 to carry out international projects of interest and concern to systematic botanists. It publishes the series Regnum Vegetabile, which includes the numerous editions of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (see also) the Index Nominum Genericorum, Taxonomic Literature (two editions), and the Index Herbariorum (parts 1 and 2). In addition, six issues of its journal Taxon are published each year, presently consisting of over eighteen hundred pages. IAPT is also responsible for the Inter-Congress Nomenclature Committees and the sessions on nomenclature at each International Botanical Congress. The most recent Congress was held in 2011 in Melbourne.
International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) – See next entry below.
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) – The ICN is the set of rules and guidelines used when formally assigning botanical names. Formerly called the International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), the name was changed by the 18th International Botanical Congress held in July 2011 to underscore the fact that algae and fungi are also covered. Note that the second part of the code name is not capitalized. It is also called the Melbourne Code as this is where the IBC meeting that modified the code took place. Previous revisions are similarly known by the location where the Congress meet. One of the most interesting novelties of 2011 revision saw the traditional requirement of a diagnosis, or validating description, using Latin changed to allow the use of either Latin or English. ➤ International Code.
International Plant Names Index – The ➤ International Plant Names Index, or IPNI, is a searchable on-line database containing published names and some basic associated bibliographical details on seed plants, ferns and lycophytes. The project is a collaboration between the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, the Harvard University Herbaria and the Australian National Herbarium and was initiated to eliminate the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names. Since it wasn't within the IPNI's stated goals, there's no indication in the results that a name is currently recognized and they should be approached with an awareness that many are now invalid synonyms. The Plant List (see also), however, does cover that lacuna well. Besides plant names, the IPNI includes standardized author abbreviations and botanical publications and new names and abbreviations are added constantly. ➤ IPNI's Fuchsias.
International Society for Horticulture Science – World organization based in Belgium responsible for keeping track of horticultural cultivar names to prevent duplication. In 1967, the ISHS appointed the American Fuchsia Society as the international registrar for the genus fuchsia in recognition of its leading role in recording American crosses since the launch of the AFS Registration Service in 1954.
Internode – The distance between sets of leaves along a stem. Some fuchsias, such as 'Cardinal,' have very long internodes and will make large scrambling bushes or even achieve almost vine-like growth suitable for trellises or arbors.
Internodal Rooting – Roots that develop from the internode rather than at the leaf axil or node. Fuchsias develop internodal roots more slowly than nodal ones so this fact should be considered when taking cuttings. See also Adventitous.
Intraspecific Name – Any scientific plant name below the rank of species. A subspecies, such as F. regia ssp. reitzii, is an infraspecific name. The only legitimate intraspecific botanical terms allowed by the ICN rules are subspecies, variety (or varieties), subvariety (or subvarietas), form (or forma), and subform (or subforma).
Involucrata – Having an involucre, literally a wrapping or case; having a bract around each flower; having the leaf edges rolled inwards. F. involucrata (Sw.1788) is a synonym of Schradera involucrata (Sw., K.Schum 1889), a member of the Rubiaceae, or Coffee Family. Another member of this family, Deppea splendens, is known as the Golden Fuchsia.
Isotype – In taxonomy, a specimen that is a duplicate of a holotype, the archetypical physical example of a plant or animal that was used when the species was formally described. (See also Holotype.)
Italics – Taxononic ranks, such as family, genus, species and subspecies are usually set in italics. Connectors such as subsp. (also ssp.) or var. are not. For example, Onagraceae or Fuchsia regia ssp. serrae.
Jack Lamb National Collection of Fuchsia Species – See National Collections (UK).Jahn Hartmann, Alfredo (1867-1940) – Celebrated Venezuelan engineer, geographer and botanist, who was affectionately known in his home country as "Papa Jahn." Jahn finished his early studies in1886 and quickly became an assistant engineer on railway planning and construction. He was eventually responsible for the construction of the railroad from Caracas to Valencia and a highway from Caracas to El Junquito. In 1887, at the request of the president of Venezuela, he accompanied the chemist Vicente Marcano on a scientific expedition of study and exploration to the upper Orinoco river. The expedition was a great success and returned to Caracas with a collection of plants, as well as archaeological objects. In 1911 he became the first person to ascend Pico Humboldt in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and a large natural cave in MIranda, the Cueva Alfredo Jahn, today bears his name. He investigated the geography of Valencia Lake and its river basin and was the first to measure the heights of peaks in the coastal mountain range. Of wide-ranging interests, he even lived with the Orinoco Indians in western Venezuela for a period to document their customs and dialects. As a botanist he collected and classified many Venezuelan plants–donating large numbers of specimens to the Smithsonian Institution. In 1921, Jahn collected the fuchsia that would later be described in his honor by Phillip A. Munz (see also) in 1942. F. jahnii, however, is now synonymous with F. gehrigeri, which was described from another collection of the same species made by Wilhelm Gehrig (see also) in 1930. Both separate collections of this single species were described differently by Munz in the same publication. Munz's mistake was ultimately corrected and the two specimens unified under F. gehrigeri by Paul Berry in 1982. See: F. gehrigeri in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Jahnii – Named in honor of Alfredo Jahn Hartmann (1867-1940). F. jahnii is a now a synonym of F. gehrigeri. See: Jahn; Gehriger; and F. gehrigeri in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
James Lye Fuchsias National Collection of Fuchsia Cultivars Introduced by James Lye – See National Collections (UK).
Jazmín de Papa, Jazmín del Papa – Very occasional common name for F. magellanica in Chile. Chilco, however, is the more usual and widespread common name used in that country.
Jimenez-Muñoz, Alfonso – Jiménez was a Costa Rican botanist and professor of Agronomy and Biology at the National University of Costa Rica, as well as the director of the National Museum of Costa Rica. It was Jiménez who first recognized and brought to the attention of other botanists that F. jimenezii was a species distinct from F. arborescens or F. paniculata, with which it was usually confused. The type on which the new species was published in his honor by Breedlove, Berry & Raven in 1983 was collected by Thomas C. Emmel in 1967 at Puntarenas in Costa Rica. F. jimenezii is the sole member of its section Jimenezia, also named in honor of Prof. Jiménez. See F. jimenezii in ➤ Section Jimenezia.
Jimenezii, Jimenezia – Named in honor of Alfonso Jiménez-Muñoz. See: Jimenez; F. jimenezii in ➤ Section Jimenezia.
Johnston, Ivan Murray (1898-1960) – I.M. Johnston (1898–1960) was a American botanist whose areas of interest included the pteridophytes and spermatophytes. He studied at Pomona College in Claremont, California and at Harvard University. His plant collections are housed at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in Claremont and in the Gray Herbarium at Harvard University. F. johnstonii (J.F.Macbride 19??), named in his honor, is an unresolved name.
Johnstonii – Named in honor of I.M. Johnston. F. johnstonii (J.F.Macbride 19??) is an unresolved name.
JStor Global Plants – A new on-line service from that renowned gatekeeper of academic publications that describes itself as a "community-contributed database where worldwide herbaria can share their plant type specimens, experts can update…", etc. There's a wealth of botanical information on the site but, unfortunately, any of the almost two million images now in the database are not scalable beyond a small thumbnail unless users are affiliated with a participating institution with an annual subscription. ➤ JStor Global Plants.
Juntasensis – From Junta in the Cochabamba Department of Bolivia. See F. juntasensis in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Kathleen Muncaster National Collection of Hardy Fuchsia – See National Collections (UK).Killip, Ellsworth P. (1890-1968) – Ellsworth "Buddy" Killip was a American botanist. He completed his early studies at the University of Rochester in 1911, after which he worked as an associate curator at the Rochester Academy of Science until 1917. Following military service in France during WWI, where he was made a Chevalier of the French Legion of Merit, he joined the United States National Herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution as an aide in 1919. He was eventually appointed its chief curator of plants from 1946 until he retired in 1950. During his tenure, the Division of Botany became the Department of Botany. Killip collected widely on field expeditions, especially in Colombia and the tropical Americas, and over one hundred and fifty species came to be named in his honor. One of Killip's greatest achievements was the complete reorganization of the enormous collection of illustrations and plant specimens amassed by the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Grenada (see also) led by José Celestino Mutis (1732-1808) from 1783 until his death in 1808. This historic and important botanical collection was all but forgotten and gathering dust for decades at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Madrid until Killip started a resurgence of interest in it in 1929. In 1953, after the interference of the Spanish Civil War and then World War II ended, the first of the botanical descriptions and illustrations of the expedition was jointly published by Spain and Colombia. Almost thirty volumes have been released since the start of the project but these still represent only a fifth of the total mass of materials from the expedition. Killip himself specialized in the Bomarea (Amaryllidaceae), as well as the Leguminosae and Passifloraceae families. F. killipii (Johnston 1925) was described in his honor but is now synonymous with F. venusta (Humbolt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823). See F. venusta in ➤ Section Fuchsia; see also José Celestino Mutis; Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
(Illustration: Ellsworth Killip at the ➤ Washington Biologists’ Field Club during the 1930s. US Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Interior.)
Killipii – Named in honor Ellsworth P. Killip (1890-1968). F. killipii (Johnston 1925) is now synonymous with F. venusta (Humbolt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823). See Killip; see also F. venusta in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Kirk, Thomas (1828-1898) – British-born botanist, teacher and writer who moved to New Zealand in 1862. He wrote over on hundred and thirty papers on botany and plants, which were published in New Zealand and Britain. His report, The Durability of New Zealand Timbers, appeared in 1875, followed by the The Forest Flora of New Zealand in 1889, and the Students’ Flora of New Zealand, released after his death in 1898. F. kirkii was named in his honor but is now a synonym of F. procumbens.
(Illustration: Portrait of Thomas Kirk, before 1898.)
Kirkii – Named in honor of Thomas Kirk. F. kirkii (Hook. f. 1871) and F. kirkii (Hook.f. ex Kirk 1868) are synonyms of F. procumbens (R.Cunningham 1839) in ➤ Section Procumbentes. F. procumbens is subdioesceous and the male-flowered form was confused and described as a separate species.
Kohutuhutu – Alternative Maori name for Kotukutuku (see also).
Konini – Maori name for the berries of the Kotukutuku or native Tree Fuchsia (F. excorticata) of New Zealand. The word is sometimes incorrectly applied to the whole tree. See also Berries.
Kotukutuku – Maori name for F. excoticata, the native Tree Fuchsia of New Zealand, in ➤ Section Skinnera. The Maori saying, "I whea koe I te tahuritanga o te rau o te kotukutuku?: or "Where were you when the leaves of the Fuchsia tree began to grow in the spring?" is a reproach against those who show up at harvest time but are nowhere to be found when work needs to be done at planting time. See also Konini, Tree Fuchsia.
Küpe çiçeği – Turkish name for the fuchsia. It translates as Earring Flower. Also sometimes rendered as Küpeçiçeği.
- L - M
Lady's Eardrops – According to most reference works, this is the so-called common name for the fuchsia in English. It seems logical to think that Lady's Eardrops might simply be an early borrowing from the Spanish Pendientes de la Reina, or perhaps the Portuguese Brinco-de-Princesa, which intriguingly hints to some link with the mysterious arrival of either one of the first two fuchsia species supposedly grown in English gardens: F. magellanica from Chile or F. coccinea from Brazil. Or perhaps both more-or-less simultaneously since confusion between the two species was also early and widespread. Whatever the suggestive origin, English speakers have always shown a marked preference for fuchsias over Lady's Eardrops and the term never seems to have gained quite as wide a currency as one would surmise from the seemingly ubiquitous assertions of its status. Today, the name is essentially defunct. It is also found as Lady's Eardrop, Ladies' Eardrop or Ladies' Eardrops, with or without various hyphenations, and sometimes reported to specifically refer just to F. coccinea. See also The Urban Fuchsia Blog ➤ What's in a name?
(Illustration: Detail from the Flower Ball in J.J. Grandville's Les Fleurs Animées, 1847.)Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste (1744-1829) – Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, the Chevalier de la Marck, known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist and early proponent of evolution. Born to an impoverished military family, Lamarck was originally designated by his father for a career in the church. After his father's death, however, he quickly left his Jesuit college to join the army. He eventually took up the study of botany after he was retired due to injuries in1766. The publication of his three-volume work Flore Française in 1778 gained him much recognition. Lamarck was eventually named a royal botanist and by 1788 appointed the keeper of the herbarium at the Jardin du Roi. During the French Revolution in 1790, he changed its name to the Jardin des Plantes to distance it from the king. In 1793, he was appointed professor of invertebrate zoology in charge of insects and worms at the new Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, which he had helped reorganize from the Jardin des Plantes, and became interested in evolutionary theory while studying mollusks in the Paris Basin. While it had been collected as early as1690 (see Handyside), and Louis Feuillée observed it as Thilco in 1714, Lamarck was the first to formally publish F. magellanica as a species in 1788. The holotype resided in his herbarium and was collected by Philibert Cammerson in the Straights of Magellan in 1768.
(Illustration: 1. Fuchsias in Histoire naturelle, 1788; 2. Portrait of Lamarck.)
Lamb, Jack – See National Collections (UK).
Lampadaria – F. lampadaria (J.O.Wright 1978) is a synonym of F. magdalenae (Munz 1943) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Lanceolate – Lance or spear-shaped. The term is applied to fuchsia leaves with this general outline.
Lectotype – The botanical specimen selected as the type specimen for a species when a holotype (see also) hasn't been defined.Lee, James (1715-1795) – Prominent Scottish-born plantsman who in 1745 became partner with Lewis Kennedy (1721-1782) to found the nursery firm of Lee & Kennedy. Their famous nursery grounds, called the Vineyard, were located in Hammersmith. The firm spanned three generations and the location at the Vineyard was active until 1885 when the site was developed for Olympia Hall. Lee apprenticed under Phillip Miller (see also) at the Chelsea Physic Garden and served as gardener to the Duke of Somerset at Syon House and, later, the Duke of Argyll at Witton Park. He corresponded with Linnaeus and published An Introduction to Botany in 1760, explaining the Linnaean system to a wide public. The book went through through five editions. Lee also corresponded with botanical collectors in the Americas and tested the hardiness of plants in England from the Cape of Good Hope. The firm had many prominent admirers and customers including the French Empress Josephine and the Russian Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna, who made a special stop at the nursery when Czar Alexander I visited England. He was succeeded at the firm by his son, also named James Lee (1754-1824). The nursery is credited with the introduction of F. magellanica (often confused with F. coccinea at the time) into popular cultivation. According to variously repeated tales, the novel plant was first noticed on a Wapping windowsill, sometimes that of a certain Captain Firth's mother (see also Firth), or at other times just a sea wife's or widow's, by either the elder or the younger Lee. It was supposedly bought from her for the princely sum of £15 to be propagated and sold by the firm in 1788 for an equally step guinea a plant. This origin story is colorful, but mysterious, late and likely apocryphal, and it's been suggested that it was invented to cover the questionable liberation of cuttings from Kew. However, considering the extensive and exceptionally prominent botanical and horticultural connections of especially the senior Lee, that suggestion is highly implausible. The firm did also introduce dozens of other novelties, such as the dahlia in 1818, to the public.
(Illustration: Portrait of Lee from An Introduction to Botany, 1760.)
Lehmann, Federico Carlos (1914-1974) – Also sometimes known as Friedrich Karl Lehmann. Lehmann was a Colombian ornithologist, plant collector and conservation biologist. He was born in Colombia to a German father who died while exploring the Río Timbique. Following early schooling in Berlin, he returned to Colombia in 1929 to study at the University of Cauca in Popoyán. In 1938 Lehmann accepted a job in the Institute of Botany at the National University of Colombia in Bogotá, where he was in charge of its collection of animal specimens. On his travels through the country to expand the collection, he became increasingly interested in ornithology and in environmental protection and worked to promote conservation legislation in Colombia during the 1940s and 50s. From 1956 to 1961 Lehmann was the assessor of natural resources for the Ministry of Agriculture in Valle and Cauca and his efforts lead to the creation of several new protected areas, including the Farallones de Cali National Natural Park, the Laguna de Sonso Nature Reserve, the Los Nevados National Natural Park and the Puracé National Natural Park. He founded the departmental Museum of Natural Sciences in Cali in 1963. It was renamed in his honor after his death in 1974. He was also commemorated in the name of Lehmann's Poison Frog (Dendrobates lehmanni). See F. lehmannii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Lehmannii – Named in honor of Federico Carlos Lehmann (1914-1974). See: Lehmann; F. lehmannii (Munz 1943) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Leicester, University of, National Collection of Hardy Fuchsia – See National Collections (UK).Lemoine, Victor (1823-1911) – Exceptionally prolific French flower breeder and nurseryman in Nancy, France. Lemoine worked on an astonishing number of garden species, but was especially noted for his lilacs, of which his nursery probably produced over two hundred hybrids including the first double. His achievements and fame spread widely and he would be awarded many medals, from the Royal Horticultural Society in London to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in Boston, for his outstanding achievements. In 1885 he was made a member of the Legion of Honor by the French government, being elevated to the rank of knight officer in 1894. The family firm survived until 1960, when it was finally closed. Starting about 1855, Lemoine began releasing fuchsia crosses. By some estimates he was eventually responsible for almost four hundred and fifty hybrids, many of which are still popular and grown in gardens today.
Among his many fuchsias are such continuing and recognizable favorites as Abbé Farges, Baron de Ketteler, Brutus, Caledonia, Carmen, Dr. Foster, Dollar Princess, Drame, Enfant Prodigue, Fascination, Graf Witte, Heron, Isabelle, Isis, Jules Daloges, Lord Byron, Pénoménal, Rolla and Royal Purple.
(Illustration: Portrait of Lemoine.)
Lenneana – Lennaeana; Named for Carl von Linné. F. lenneana (Warcz. 1852) is invalid and a synonym of F. boliviana (Carrière 1876) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Leptopoda – Having thin stalks. F. leptopoda (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. denticulata (Ruiz & Pavón 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Liana – A vine or plant with vine-like growth. Some fuchsias, such as F. regia for example, have a naturally lax and scrambling habit. In situations where there are other shrubs or trees competing for space and light, their elongated branches can often be found reaching over or through other shrubs or even far up into trees for several meters.
Liebman, Frederik (1813-1856) – Danish botanist. He studied botany at the University of Copenhagen, where he never obtained a degree, and subsequently went on study tours of Germany and Norway before becoming lecturer at the Danish Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College in 1837. In 1840 he travelled to Cuba and Mexico. On his return in 1845, he was appointed Professor of Botany at the University of Copenhagen and became the director of its botanical garden from 1852 until his death. F. liebmannii (H.Lév. 1912), named in his honor, is now a synonym of F. paniculata (Lindley 1856) in ➤ Section Schufia.
Liebmannii – Named in honor of Frederik Liebmann. F. liebmannii (H.Lév. 1912) is a synonym of F. paniculata (Lindley 1856) in ➤ Section Schufia.
Lilac Fuchsia – Common name occasionally applied to F. paniculata, or sometimes F. arborescens, both in ➤ Section Schufia, because of the resemblance of their inflorescences to those of lilacs (Syringa).Lilja, Nils (1808-1870) – Swedish intellectual, writer, poet and botanist. Lilja's early education was at Malmö, where he excelled in botany and poetry. In 1828, Lilja went to study for the priesthood at the University of Lund but was set back in his studies by a lack of funds and hospitalization for an eye ailment. He later took up botany, geology, chemistry, literature, philosophy and political science on his own. A seemingly perennial student, he apparently spent fourteen years at university without ever obtaining the master's degree on which he was working, but often solicited the support of friends and admirers, including the crown prince of sweden Oscar I, who provided scholarships and arranged fundraisers to help support his continuing efforts.
In 1838, he published the 524 page Skånes flora (Flora of Scania), a work that was not particularly well received by scientists at the time as it was completely written in Swedish, used the common vernacular names of plants and included much information on their folklore. It would be substantially reworked and republished in 1870. Among his numerous publications, Menniskan: Hennes uppkomst, hennes lif och hennes bestämmelse (Mankind: Its Origins, Life and Destiny; Stockholm, 1858) is considered to be his most significant and enduring effort. It was a long work covering various aspects of civilization, anthropology and natural history and was intended for a popular audience rather than academia.
Lilja's family life seemed to be as distracted as his myriad, eclectic professional interests: He was married three times, fathering fifteen children, and even found time to father at least four, or perhaps six, additional children with a maid. Reflecting his interest in botany, Lilja's offspring were sometimes given names inspired by plants. His unorthodox views on Christianity and social subjects such as free love, of course, earned him a certain amount of public scrutiny but his many friends and supporters remained personally faithful. In recognition of his efforts in the botanical sciences, Lilja was awarded an honorary PhD from the University of Göttingen in 1865.
At the beginning of the 1840's Lilja tried his hand at the taxonomy of a number of Central American fuchsias, quartered in today's Ellobium and Encliandra sections, establishing new genera for them: Ellobium fulgens (DC, Lilja 1841), Spachia fulgens (DC, Lilja 1840) and Myrinia microphylla (Lilja 1840). There is no explanation preserved in his publications as to the reason for his sudden interest in these fuchsia species. However, Myrinia appears in the Första Supplementet (1840) of Lilja's Flora öfver Sveriges odlade vexter, (Flora of Sweden's Cultivated Plants,1839), a gardening book that sorted the plants along the Linnaean system and offered practical advice on growing local and exotic plants. The book's full title continues, "innefattande de flesta på fritt land odlade vexter i Sverige, jemte de allmännare och vackrare fenstervexterna…" (including most of the outdoor plants in Sweden, along with the more general and beautiful indoor plants…) so his motivation was perhaps the rising fashionableness of fuchsias in Europe. His taxonomic efforts on their behalf, though, are now all synonymous with the names by which they are known today, F. fulgens and F. microphylla. Not giving up easily, Lilja also published the Fuchsiaceae family in the second edition of his Skånes flora (1870) to house his genera but that family is also invalid: Fuchsia belongs to the Onagraceae, or Evening Primrose Family.
(Illustration: Portrait of Nils Lilja.)Linnaeus, Carl (1707-1778) – Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who laid the foundation of botanical nomenclature in modern science starting with his Species Plantarum (1753). It was Linnaeus who shortened Charles Plumier's long descriptive name for the first fuchsia from Fuchsia triphylla, flora coccineo in accordance with the binomial nature of the nomen triviale, or trivialnames, he assigned to make his classified species easier to remember and identify. Linnæus was ennobled by the Swedish king in 1757 for his scientific achievements and took the name Carl von Linné. His name is also rendered as Carolus Linnaeus in Latin publications. Daniel Solander, who journeyed with Joseph Banks on the famous voyage of discovery of the HMS Endeavor, was his botany student at the University of Uppsala and one of his numerous "apostles."
(Ilustrations: 1.Portrait of Carl von Linné, Alexander Roslin, 1775; 2. Linné's coat of arms features a field divided into his three kingdoms of animal (Rouge), plant (Vert) and mineral (Sable). The crest is the twinflower, or Linnæa borealis, his favorite plant and personal badge.)
Llewelynii – Named in honor of the Welsh-born botanist, Llewelyn Williams (1901-1980). See: Williams; F. llewelynii (J.F.MacBride 1941) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Loja Province, Ecuador – Considered by botanists to be a "hotbed of speciation in Fuchsia," the upper elevation cloud forests of Loja Province in southern Ecuador are the only home of no less than five species in the F. loxensis species group of Fuchsia section Fuchsia. These even include a new species, only recently discovered in 1995 and described as F. aquaviridis. The other four species endemic to the region are F. campii, F. scherffiana, F. steyermarkii and F. summa. Considering that studies and collections of new plants coming from southern Ecuador have increased dramatically in the past few years, it is not inconceivable that additional new fuchsias might be forthcoming from this botanically fascinating region. Unfortunately, many uncommon plants in Loja Province, including the new F. aquaviridis, are also increasingly being endangered by roads and land clearings. (Illustration: Coat of Arms of Loja Provice. Note the quasi-mantling rendered as green foliage.)
Longiflora – Having a long flower. F. longiflora (Bentham 1845) is a synonym of F. macrostigma (Bentham 1844) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Loxensis – From Loja Province, Ecuador. See F. loxensis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Ludwigioideae – One of two subfamilies in the Onagraceae family (see also). Fuchsia is a member species of the Onagroideae subfamily.
Lyell, Sir Charles (1795-1875) – British lawyer and the leading geologist of his time. Lyell was a close friend and correspondant of both Charles Darwin and James Hooker (see both also). He is best known for his three-volume Principles of Geology (1830-1833), which popularized the idea that the earth was shaped by the same processes still in operation today. It was in a letter to Lyell in 1866 that Darwin reveals his new awareness of "Fuchsia, etc" and other temperate plants found in the Organ Mountains of south-eastern Brazil and separated from relatives in the Andes Mountains across "low intervening hot countries." See Darwin; Hooker.
Lycioides – Resembling Lycium afrum, the thorny boxwood. See F. lycioides in ➤ Section Kierschlegeria.Lye, James (1830-1906) – Victorian gardener and prolific fuchsia hybridizer who was responsible for introducing over ninety cultivars from about 1860 to 1897. Many of his efforts still exist and are still popular today. A particular hallmark of his crosses was often a waxy white calyx. Lye was the head gardener at Clyffe Hall in Market Lavington, England until he retired 1896 and was noted for the skill with which he grew large pyramids there. Some of his creations reached impressive sizes of ten feet tall and four feet wide. His hybrids, many of which are still grown today, include Clipper, Beauty of Wiltshire, James Lye, Letty Lye, Betty Lye, Mrs. Lye, Mrs. J. Bright, Mrs. Huntley, James Huntley, Charming, Elegance, Beauty of Swanley and Mrs. F. Glass. Lye also bred potatoes.
(Illustration: Lye stands among a virtual forest of his fuchsia pyramids. Date unknown.)
M919 Fuchsia – A tripartite-class mine-hunting vessel formerly belonging to the Belgian Navy. It was commissioned in 1988. The botanically inspired sister ships in its class were the Dianthus, Iris and Myosotis. Sold to France in 1993, the M919 Fuchsia is now called the M652 Céphée.
(Illustration: See M919 Fuchsia at ➤ ShipSpotting.com © G. Gyssels.)Macbride, James Francis (1892-1976) – American botanist and plant hunter. In 1921, he joined the Field Museum of Chicago to head its newly created Flora of Peru project and traveled to Peru on expedition in 1922, and again in 1923, to collect almost 6,000 specimens. Among the seven fuchsia specimens with which he returned were actually two that proved new to science: F. abrupta (Johnston 1925) and F. ferreyae (Berry 1980), which had originally been wrongly identified as F. decussata (Ruiz & Pavon). Beginning in 1929, Macbride spent ten years traveling across Europe to photograph over 40,000 type and other historically important specimens at all major herbaria. Aside from their usefulness to botanists in North America, his photographs would prove to be of immense value after the destruction and losses suffered by a number of herbaria during World War II.
During his absence, the Field Museum continued to acquire Peruvian collections from various sources such as Ellsworth Killip, Guillermo Klug, Francis Pennell, Albert Smith, Agusto Weberbauer, Llewelyn Williams and others. By 1936, the Field herbarium contained over 33,000 Peruvian specimens, the largest collection of it kind anywhere, and the Flora of Peru series was launched with the publication of Volume 13, Number 1.Over the next twenty-five years nearly 180 plant families were to be published in the series, of which Macbride personally treated 150. Fuchsia would be covered in Part 4, No. 1 where Macbride himself described seven new fuchsia species all named in honor of various deserving people: F. aslundii, aspazui, fischerii, llewelynii, munzii, osgoodii and woytkowskii (see each also.) Unfortunately, all would later turn out to be synonymous with previously established species. In the late 1940s, Macbride moved to California but continued his work using the facilities of the University of California and Stanford University. His last families were published in 1960, with only twenty left undone by the time he died.
(Illustrations: 1. Detail of MacBride posed with a giant Equisetum and small boy at Huánuco on the Field Museum expedition to Peru in April, 1922, Field Museum Neg. 47288; 2. F. macropetala type from the Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum in Berlin-Dahlem. Almost its entire collection of botanical specimens, some dating back three hundred years, as well as the library, was tragically lost in a bomb attack and fire on March 1, 1943. This type, however, was preserved in Macbride's photography.)
Macrantha – Large flowered. F. macrantha (Hooker 1846) is a synonym of F. apetala (Ruiz & Pavón 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Macrophylla – Having large leaves. See F. macrophylla (I.M.Johns. 1925) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Macropetala – Having large petals. See F. macropetala (J. Presl. 1831) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Macrostemma – Having a large stemma, or garland or crown. F. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavón 1802) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia, as are F. macrostemma var. conica (Lindl., Sweet 1833), F. macrostemma var. globosa (Lindl., Sweet 1833), F. macrostemma var. gracilis (Lindl., Sweet 1833), F. macrostemma var. grandiflora (Hook. & Arn. 1833), F. macrostemma var. parviflora (Hook. & Arn. 1833), F. macrostemma var. recurvata (Hook. 1836) and F. macrostemma var. tenella (Lindl., DC. 1828).
Macrostigma – Having a large stigma (see also). See F. macrostigma (Bentham 1844) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. macrostigma var. longiflora (Benth., Munz 1943) is a synonym.
Magdalenae – From the Magdalena Department in Colombia. See F. magdalenae (Munz 1943) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Magellanica – From the Magellanic region, or Straights of Magellan. See F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia. No subspecies, varieties or forms are currently recognized.
This species has collected numerous invalid synonyms: Dorvalia eucharis (Comm. ex Lam. 1788); F. araucana (F.Phil. 1876); F. chonotica (Phil. 1856); F. coccinea var. chonotica (Phil., Reiche 1897); F. coccinea var. macrostema (Ruiz & Pavón, Hook. 1847); F. coccinea var. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavón, Hook.f. 1847); F. coccinea var. robustior (Hook.f. 1847); F. conica (Lindl. 1827); F. decussata (Graham 1824) [Illegitimate]; F. discolor (Lindl. 1836); F. globosa (Lindl. 1836); F. gracilis (Lindl. 1836); F. gracilis var. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavón, Lindl. 1827); F. gracilis var. multiflora (Lindl. 1827); F. gracilis var. tenella (Lindl. 1827); F. macrostema var. grandiflora (Hook. 1833); F. macrostemma var. conica (Lindl., Sweet 1833); F. macrostemma var. globosa (Lindl., Sweet 1833); F. macrostemma var. gracilis (Lindl., Sweet 1833); F. macrostemma var. grandiflora (Hook. & Arn. 1833); F. macrostemma var. parviflora (Hook. & Arn. 1833); F. macrostemma var. recurvata (Hook. 1836); F. macrostemma var. tenella (Lindl., DC. 1828); F. magellanica var. alba (Clarence Elliott 1932); F. magellanica var. conica (Lindl., L.H.Bailey 1900); F. magellanica var. discolor (Lindl. L.H.Bailey 1900); F .magellanica var. eburnea (Pisano 1979); F. magellanica var. globosa (Lindl., L.H.Bailey 1900); F. magellanica var. gracilis (Lindl., L.H.Bailey 1900); F. magellanica var. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pav., Munz 1943); F. magellanica var. molinae (Espinosa 1929); F. magellanica var. riccartonii (Tillery, L.H.Bailey 1915); F. multiflora (L. 1774); F. myrtifolia (Koehne 1893); F. pumila (Voss, Voss 1894); F. pumila (Meun. 1926); F. recurvata (Niven ex Hook. 1836); F. riccartonii (Tillery 1871); F. tenella (Lindl., G.Don 1830); F. thompsonii (Koehne 1893); F. virgata (Sweet ex Jacques 1834), Nahusia coccinea (Schneevoogt 1792) and Thilcum tinctorium (Molina 1810).Magellanica hybrids, or Magellanicas – A group of winter-hardy garden hybrids closely resembling the southern Chilean and Argentinian species, Fuchsia magellanica in the ➤ Quelusia section of the genus, from which they were developed. Frequently cultivated outdoors in gardens throughout the world, magellanicas are often also found naturalized in many climatically favorable areas, such as the British Isles, for example, or coastal France. In Ireland, especially, magellanicas have become so widespread in the countryside that they seem to have reached almost iconic status for that country alongside the shamrock.
Mostly of early and unknown horticultural origin, the group includes many well-known and attractive cultivars or garden selections such as ''Alba,' Aurea,' 'Conica,' 'Exonensis,' 'Globosa,' 'Gracilis,' 'Macrostema,' 'Molinae,' 'Pumila,' 'Riccartonii,' 'Tricolor,' 'Variegata,' 'Versicolor' and a number of others. Despite common misconceptions to the contrary, current and past, recent pollen-stain tests conducted on specimens of this group of plants have confirmed that all are of hybrid origin of varying degrees, possibly resulting from early uncontrolled or accidental crosses with another close relative in Section Quelusia, F. coccinea.
Confusingly, the true F. magellanica is also widely and evenly variable throughout the whole of its extensive range. Botanists, therefore, currently recognize no naturally occurring subspecies or varieties within the species. Only the verified species itself should be called F. magellanica and care must be taken not to assume scientific status for any of the magellanica-like garden plants. Or even for new selections from the wild. For example, F. magellanica var. macrostema is inaccurate and invalid in scientific nomenclature and should not be used. A correct botanical convention to follow for its name would be F. x magellanica 'Macrostema,' to indicate its status and origin as a garden selection or hybrid.
(Illustration: A magellanica-hybrid selection growing in the Lake Wilderness Botanical Garden the Pacific Northwest region of the US.)
Magenta – Trade name for a synthetic analine dye, rosaniline hydrochloride. The name was invented in 1859 by Edward Chambers Nicholson after the Battle of Magenta fought that year and is a synonym of another trade name, fuchsine, coined that same year by Renard Frères et Franc in France. See Fuchsine; ➤ The Color Fuchsia.
Magniflora – Having large flowers. F. × magniflora (B.S.Williams 1855) is an unresolved name.
Mapuche – The indigenous peoples of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina. The ethnicity includes sub-groups such as the Picunche (people of the north) and the Huilliche (people of the South) who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a linguistic heritage. The Mapuche knew F. magellanica as chilco (see also) and used it as a black dye for cloth and for medicinal purposes.Mathews, Andrew (1801-1841) – His name is sometimes alternatively recorded as Andrew Matthews, Alexander Matthews or Andrés Mateus. Mathews was a British naturalist and member of the Linnean Society who left England to collect in South America. He came first to Chile but eventually settled in Peru where he married a local woman. Between 1830 and 1841, Mathews was mainly active in Peru, Brazil and Chile but also undertook a journey to Polynesia to collect on the islands of French Polynesia and others, such as the Pitcairn Islands and the Friendly Islands (Tonga). Described by a contemporary as a "traveling collector of natural objects," he acquired numerous birds, insects and plants and was even commended by a acquaintance to Charles Darwin during his stop in Peru in 1834. The two were unfortunately not destined to meet as Mathews had already set out on a trip across the Andes to the Rio de la Plata. His eager clients included the celebrated nurseryman George Loddiges (1786-1846), to whom he sent exotic plants and birds such as the rare Marvelous Spatuletail hummingbird, which would be named Loddigesia mirabilis, and Sir William Hooker, the well-connected botanist and director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Mathews died at Chachapoyas in the Amazonas Province of Peru in 1841 after a period of declining health.Among the many collections made by Mathews was a new fuchsia gathered in the Chachapoyas area, probably sometime between 1835 and 1840. For over a hundred years, however, this original type specimen apparently languished, unnumbered, in the colossal herbarium (herbaria is more like it) of the botanical garden in Geneva, Switzerland. Better late than never, J. Francis MacBride (see also), of the Field Museum of Chicago, eventually recognized that the Mathews specimen preserved at Geneva was a distinct species and published it as F. mathewsii, first in Candollea (8:24) in 1940 and then again included it in his immense Flora of Peru (8: 4: 1) in 1941. Perhaps partially explaining why it languished so long, F. mathewsii also seems to have been easily confused in herbarium specimens. Indeed, MacBride himself published another collection of the same fuchsia made in 1906 by August (Agusto) Weberbauer (1871-1948) as the novel, F. fischeri, in the same volume of the Flora of Peru as F. mathewsii. A further collection made by Harvey E. Stork (1890-1959) in 1938 would be published by Phillip A. Munz as F. storkii in 1943.However, it's unclear why the great gap of a hundred years between collection and description. The plant itself is not especially rare, being a common and scattered, or even a locally frequent, shrub in its native range. Perhaps it was just caught in the gold rush of South America's botanical riches that started at the beginning of the 19th Century, with so many new plants being passed too rapidly for herbaria first in Europe, and later in the United States as well, to easily digest. In fact, many new plants, fuchsias included, are still regularly being uncovered in the diverse and rich ecosystems of South America. Part of the problem might also have been that Mathews' valuable collections are quite dispersed and no complete set exists anywhere.
In addition to F. mathewsii, MacBride actually found two further new fuchsias collected by Mathews a hundred years earlier, which had long been in hiding, undescribed, in Geneva as well: F. fontinalis and F. rivularis. Astonishingly, yet two more novel fuchsias collected by Mathews went to the botanical garden at Oxford, but these had had a more timely description by Fielding & Gardener already in 1844: F. confertifolia and F. pilosa. In all, Mathews was responsible for the discovery and collection of five new species of fuchsia. It's worth wondering if Mathews' additional focus on birds, especially on hummingbirds for George Loddiges, helped draw his attention to the fuchsias on which many hummingbirds, of course, frequently feed. All in all, five new fuchsias is certainly a testament to Mathews' skill and his discerning eye as other collectors would later pass near areas in which Mathews collected in the intervening century to MacBride. See F. mathewsii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustrations: 1. The rare and now-endangered Marvelous Spatuletail was discovered by Mathews in 1835 at the forest edges of the Río Utcubamba area in Amazonas and subsequently described from the skin of a mature male sent to England. John Gould, author, and H.C. Richter, illustrator, A Monograph of the Trochilidae, or Family of Humming-Birds, 1880, plate 161; 2. F. pilosa and 3. F. confertifolia, H. B. Fielding, Sertum Plantarum (1844), Tables 27 & 28.
Mathewsii – Named in honor of Andrew Mathews (1801-1841). See: F. mathewsii (J.F.McBride 1940) in ➤ Section Fuchsia; Mathews.
Mattoana – Probably meaning, from an area covered by mato (also matto), or thick brush or bushes. The Mato Grosso (also Matto-Grosso) is a state in Western Brazil bordering Bolivia and means, literally, "thick bushes". The southwest part of the state was ceded to Bolivia in 1903. F. mattoana (E.H.L.Krause 1906) is a synonym of F. tunariensis (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Membranacea – Membrane-like, skin-like. See F. membranacea (Hemsley 18976) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.Mendel, Gregor (1822-1884) – Austrian scientist and Augustinian friar who founded the science of genetics by demonstrating inheritance patterns in peas. Mendel did his work at the Abbey of St. Thomas in Brünn in Austro-Hungarian Moravia (today Brno, Czech Republic). He had originally entered religious life there in 1843 to train for the priesthood but left to pursue studies at the University of Vienna. He returned to the Abbey as a teacher in 1854 and became abbot in 1867. Most of Mendel's published work was on meteorology and it was only in the early 20th century that his seminal work on peas (Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden, 1866)was rediscovered and he began to be hailed as the Father of Genetics.
Mendel was also very fond of fuchsias and he grew and bred them in the garden at his monastery. In an early group photo of the friars at the abbey taken sometime after 1860, he distinctly poses himself examining a fuchsia. One might imagine it to have been one of his own garden crosses, he so closely and intently studies the pale, single blossom and buds dangling from the small sprig held in his hand. In fact, it's not even the only photo in which Mendel poses himself with what is obviously a favorite flower. Fuchsias weren't, however, involved in his genetic studies. Mendel is often said to have incorporated a fuchsia into his coat of arms but a close examination of his abbotical shield, at least, painted on a plaster cartouche on the ceiling of the library at the Abbey of St. Thomas reveal what appear to be naturalistically styled lilies in the first quarter.
(Illustrations: Mendel examines a fuchsia; Mendel's coat of arms as Abbot of St. Thomas.)
Meridensis – From the state of Médrida in Venezuela. F. meridensis (Steyermark 1952) is a synonym of F. venusta (Kunthe 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Meristem – The plant tissue that allows growth. It is composed of totipotent cells which have the ability to differentiate when dividing.
Mexiae – Named in honor of Ynés Mexía. F. mexiae (Munz 1943) is a synonym of F. cylindracea (Lindley 1838) in ➤ Section Encliandra. [F. parviflora (Lindley 1827) is a synonym of F. encliandra (Zucc. 1837).] See Bracelin.
Mez, Carl Christian – Carl Mez was a German botanist active mainly in the fields of Systematics and Physiology. After his studies at the Universities of Freiburg and Berlin, he spent a short time at the Botanical Garden and Museum of Berlin before moving on to the University of Breslau as a lecturer after 1890. From 1900 he was the professor of Systematic Botany and Pharmaceutical Studies at the University of Halle and then professor of Plant Physiology at the University of Königsberg in 1910. He also became the director of the Botanical Garden in Königsberg, which was considered one of the most beautiful in Germany at the time. After his retirement in 1935, he was made professor emeritus. Mez also founded the journal Das Botanische Arkiv in 1922 and served as its publisher until 1935. See F. mezae in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Mezae – Named in honor of Carl Mez (1866-1944). See F. mezae (P.E.Berry & Hermsen 1999) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella; Mez.
Michoacanensis – From the state of Michoacán de Ocampo in Mexico. Fuchsia michoacanensis (Sessé & Moçino 1888) is a synonym of Fuchsia parviflora (Lindley 1827).
Microphylla – Having small leaves. See. F. microphylla in ➤ Section Encliandra, of which there are six subspecies.
Microphylloides – Resembling F. microphylla. See F. encliandra subsp. microphylloides, one of six subspecies, as well as F. microphylla, which are all in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Milcaos de monte – Mountain [potato] pancakes. An edible mushroom found growing on the trunks of the native chilco (F. magellanica) in southern Chile. Milcaos, or potato pancakes, are a speciality of the island of Chiloé.Miller, Philip (1691-1771) – Miller, born in Scotland, was the head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1722 to just before his death. Miller corresponded with many botanists and received plants from all over the world. His knowledge of cultivation was considered unsurpassed during his time—admirers dubbed him the Hortulanorum princeps—and his influence on the botanic world was wide. About 1730, he received the seeds of a fuchsia shipped from "Carthagena in New Spain" (Cartagena de Indias is on the Caribbean coast of Colombia and was then the capital of New Granada, not New Spain) from fellow Scotsman and botanist William Houstoun (see also). This fuchsia was apparently successfully grown for a number of years before disappearing from cultivation at some point. Since Miller was head gardener from 1722 to 1771, it's unclear at what date the fuchsia was lost. Unfortunately, no preserved specimen of the plant has survived, if any was ever taken.Said to have been F. triphylla, this identification seems somewhat problematic as that plant is native to Hispaniola while Houstoun was known to have collected instead in areas inland from Cartagena, in modern Venezuela and Colombia. It's quite possible that Houstoun's collection might actually have been of another species in Section Fuchsia, such as F. nigricans, or perhaps F. gehrigeri, and even F. venusta, all common and native to the regions where Houstoun actually collected. Reference to Charles Plumier's Nova Plantarum Americanum Genera would certainly have been where identification of the Houston fuchsia originated. Plumier was considered a very able draftsman by his contemporaries but the somewhat blunt rendition of single F. triphylla blossoms in his book, especially without any foliage, leaves a bit to be desired.Along with F. verrucosa, the four other allied species are vaguely similar to F. triphylla and sympatric to the Venezuelan Andes. They also form a range of naturally occurring hybrids that might confuse casual identification. The plant grown from Houston's collection of seed, probably in modern Colombia or Venezuela, might have been confused with Plumier's original species from Hispaniola and not recognized as something new and different at the time. It's unknown if Miller had a copy of Plumier but Sir Hans Sloan (see also), the great patron of the Chelsea Physic Garden, certainly did. It's also not inconceivable that Houstoun, botanizing in the Caribbean as he did, carried Plumier along or maybe just referred to his memory of the description, and sent the seeds to England already associating them with F. triphylla in some way.However, it's still quite possible that the seeds Houstoun sent to Miller from Cartagena de Indias were indeed the real F. triphylla. Several decades later in 1799, passing through Santiago de Cuba on his way to Haiti, the French doctor and botanist Michel-Étienne Descourtilz reported F. triphylla being cultivated at several locations in that city. Later, in volume two of his eight-volume Flore pittoresque et médicale des Antilles released in 1826, he includes an entry on F. triphylla, called the Fuchsie à grappes, in which he goes into some detail on its cultivation and sweet fruit, and its native uses as a dye and medicine. While the Frenchman draws on his knowledge of F. triphylla from Haiti, the fact he also observed it being cultivated in Santiago de Cuba might lead to the reasonable suspicion that it could just as well have found its way to other major Spanish cities around the Caribbean, such as Cartagena de Indias, already in Houstoun's time. Especially if there were economic, medicinal or culinary uses for the species. Or even if it was just an attractive garden flower.
The mystery remains to be solved.
Miller's author abbreviation in botanical publications is Mill. Also note that his first name is spelt with a single "l".
(Illustrations: Compare Plumier's F. triphylla with later botanical drawings of F. nigricans and F. triphylla. Also, the Fuchsie à grappes from Vol. 2 of Michel-Étienne Descourtilz's Flore pittoresque et médicale des Antilles released in 1826. The drawing is by his son, Jean-Théodore Descourtilz, who undertook his own trip to Haiti in 1821.)
Mimo – Very occasionally met as an alternative descriptive name for the fuchsia in Brazil. Depending on the context it can be translated into English as a gift, delight, tenderness or kindness. It's more usually used for a few other plants, such as the Mimo-de-vénus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or H. mutabilis). See also Brinco-de-princessa.
Miniata – Red colored. F. miniata (Planch. & Linden 1852) is now a synonym of F. hirtella (Kunth 1823).
Minimiflora – Having tiny flowers. See F. thymifolia subsp. minimiflora in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Minutiflora – Having minute or very small flowers. F. minutiflora (Hemsley 1878) is a synonym of F. microphylla (Kunth 1823). F. minutiflora var. hidalgensis (Munz 1943) is a synonym of F. microphylla subsp. hidalgensis (Munz) Breedlove 1969) as well.
Missouri Botanical Garden – Founded in 1859, the 79-acre Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States. It's sometimes known as Shaw's Garden after its founder Henry Shaw, a botanist and philanthropist. Along with the public gardens, it includes one of the world's most respected research institutions and herbariums and publishes the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, a major peer-reviewed journal of botany established in 1914, quarterly. The Plant List is an new encyclopedic project created the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature on the internet. It now has over a million scientific plant names of species rank, of which almost 300,000 are accepted species names. See ➤ MBG Website.
Misspellings – Because of the elided pronunciation of fuchsia in English, misspellings are common. In fact, it's probably one of the most misspelled words in the English language. Beside the commonly seen fuschia, some other notable miscreants include fushia, fuchia, fuchuia, fuscia, fucsia, fiusha, fusha, fucha, fewsha and quite a number more.
Mixta – Mixed. F. mixta (Hemsley 1878) is a synonym of F. microphylla (Kunth 1823).
Monospecific – Said of a genus that contains only one species.Mociño, José Mariano (1757-1820) – Born to a working-class family in Temascaltepec, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (now in Mexico State in modern Mexico), Mociño's story (he himself always spelled his own name Moziño) is one of great accomplishment but also one of bitter disappointment. Mociño studied theology, philosophy and history on a scholarship at the Seminario Tridentino de México, where he graduated in 1778, before turning to medicine, the natural sciences and botany at the University of Mexico in 1784. In early 1790, he was asked to join the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain which had started in 1787 and was organized and directed by Martín de Sessé y Lacosta, a capable Spanish military physician and botanist working from the new Royal Botanical Garden in New Spain, who had secured royal support and funding for the project from Madrid under the reformist policies of Charles III. The highly ambitious aims of the Expedition were to study the natural resources of the vast and mostly uncatalogued territories of New Spain, and study and implement new policies in colonial health and education. One of the hallmarks of the botanical journeys was also a sharp focus on new plants rather than on ones already known.For his part, Mociño energetically explored in western Mexico (1790-91), along the coast of California and Nootka Island (1792-93), and in Central America (1795-99). While Sessé & Mociño are often accorded joint credit on many of the discoveries, Mociño proved himself to be such a capable and exceptional botanist that his work on the Expedition was to be more of a partnership with Sessé than anything else. It was Sessé who provided able administration and coordination of the explorations but it was Mociño who often provided the botanical scholarship and scientific enthusiasm. In fact, many of the botanical records and manuscripts are entirely in Mociño's hand. By 1803 the project drew to a close and Sessé, accompanied by Mociño, journeyed to Madrid with their specimens, manuscripts and drawings. There they met with political instability and disappointing royal disinterest from now apathetic new kings who showed no bent for the promotion of science, research and education that had occurred under Charles III. They weren't able to secure support for the publication of their work and the project languished. Living with Sessé, whose family had some resources in Spain, Mociño managed to get a teaching appointment at the Royal Academy of Medicine in Madrid and served at its president for four years. Sessé died in 1808 and Mociño, far from his own home and without significant personal or family means, lived under strained circumstances but continued to work on the material and hope for the publication of a Florae. Despite Sessé's death, his situation that year actually looked more promising under Joseph Bonaparte, who had taken over the Spanish throne during the Napoleanic French occupation, as he was appointed director of the Royal Museum of Natural History.When the Spanish Bourbon dynasty returned to power in 1812 Mociño was forced to flee to France, in declining health and already having been jailed once, because of his sympathies to the Napoleonic cause. Many of the Expedition's invaluable manuscripts and collections would become dispersed between various locations and owners without the oversight of their dedicated trustee. Mociño did, however, manage to bring the botanical manuscripts on which he had himself continued working, as well as the Expedition's valuable illustrations, into exile with him apparently by cart with much effort and struggle. The fine drawings had been prepared in the field with exceptional care by a number capable artists employed by Sessé for the purpose. It was in Montpelier, during his exile in France, that Mociño met the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle who recognized the importance of Mociño's work and the materials in his possession and even invited him to Geneva to teach botany at the University. Instead, Mociño lent de Candolle the materials and illustrations. Unable to publish the manuscripts due their unfinished state, de Candolle used the drawings to describe many new species, some three hundred in all, in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, including Mociño's discovery of F. fulgens in 1790 (3: 39. 1828). By now in severely declining health, Mociño eventually heard that he would be allowed to return to Spain but sadly died, impoverished and blind in Barcelona, on his way back to Madrid in 1820. He would one day be recognized as one of the major native-born New World scientists of his age, but never himself saw the publication of any of the Royal Botanical Expedition's greatest accomplishments.It wasn't until 1889 that the Plantae novae hispaniae would even be finally, but rather anticlimactically, published in Mexico itself from the original manuscripts prepared by Sessé & Mociño. That work was followed by the Flora mexicana in 1891. These two posthumous publications were also without the benefit of any of the fine botanical illustrations which had mostly been lost after Mociño's death. Mociño had asked de Candolle to return the illustrations to him in Barcelona and de Candolle dutifully complied. A number of duplicates, as well as numerous hastily drawn copies of many of the originals, remained preserved in Lucerne but unfortunately most of the valuable collection of botanical drawings simply disappeared after Mociño's impoverished death and burial in Barcelona.Amazingly, however, eighteen hundred of the long lost plant drawings and two hundred of the animals eventually resurfaced after being missing for over one hundred and fifty years, mysteriously preserved in the family library of the Torner family in Barcelona. They were acquired in 1981 by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania for the benefit of science. Among the fuchsias recorded in the often only partially colored illustrations were F. arborescens (as F. racemosa), two almost identical drawings of F. encliandra (as F. ovata), F. fulgens, F. microphylla ssp. microphylla (as F. acuta), F. paniculata (as F. hamellioides), F. microphylla (as F. gracilis), and F. thymifolia ssp. thymifolia (as F. alternata).
See also Candolle, Fulgens, Sessé.
(Illustrations: Thumbnails of the drawings from the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain drawn and colored by the Expedition's artists from 1787-1803: 1. F. fulgens; 2. F. arborescens; 3. F. paniculata; 4. F. encliandra; 5. F. thymifolia. The rediscovered originals are now preserved at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania to whom they had been sold.)Molina, Juan Ignacio. (b. Chile 1740 - d. Italy 1829) – Also known by the Italian version of his name, Giovanni Ignazio, as well as Abate Molina (Abbott Molina), Molina was a celebrated Jesuit priest, scholar and scientist from Chile. Born at the Hacienda Huaraculén, near Villa Alegre in what is today the Linares Province of the Maule Region, Molina showed an early affinity for languages and the sciences. He was first educated at Talca and then entered the Jesuit College at Concepción at the age of fifteen. In 1768, just as he about to receive his ordination into the priesthood in Santiago, he was forced to leave Chile when he and his fellow Jesuits were expelled from all Spanish dominions. The Society of Jesus was often the only body standing between many native peoples and their enslavement in the New World and Pope Clement XIV would succumb to exploitive secular forces in France, Portugal and Spain to fully suppress the Jesuit Order in 1773. Sadly, Molina would never return to his native Chile.
Finding a new permanent home in exile in Italy, Molina was finally be ordained at the Cathedral of San Cassiano in Imola near Bologna in September 1769. After a number of endeavors, he eventually settled at the University of Bologna where he had obtained a chair in the Greek language. In 1803 he became its professor of natural history due to his many publications in that field. Molina was a passionate defender against the many misconceptions and prejudices of the Americas current in his age and wrote much on the people, history, geography and nature of his own native country, mostly in Italian, during his many years of exile. A major work was the Compendio della storia geografica, naturale, e civile del regno del Chili, published in two volumes in 1776. Another, the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili (1782), would be a first account of the natural history of Chile and described many species new to science. His works were translated into a number of languages including, eventually, his own Spanish.
Writing in a second enlarged edition of the Saggio in 1810, Molina placed the Chilean nativeF. magellanica (Lamarck 1788), known to him as thilco, into a new genus that he dubbed Thilcum tinctorium. Thilco (also tilco or chilco) was from the language of the Picunche, a Mapuche (Mapudungun)-speaking native people then living in Chile's Central Valley, and tinctorium referred to the fact that the bark and leaves of thilco, as Molina had already observed in the 1782 edition, were used to produce a black dye. In establishingThilcum tinctorium, Molina seems to have been in Italian exile too long to fully recollect thilco on his own and was unfortunately misled by inaccuracies in Louis Feuillée's report of it in the Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (Paris, 1714), which wrongly states that its flowers are five-petalled and depicts ten stamens issuing out of them. Molina explicitly cites Feuillée's authority for creating the new genus reasoning that, while other authors report that Fuchsia has four-petalled flowers and eight stamens, Feuillée indicates five for thilco: Thilco could therefore not be a Fuchsia. Molina doesn't seem to be aware that Lamarck had already published F. magellanica in 1788 but is aware of its synonym, F. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavon 1802), and other fuchsias known under the name of Coccinea. Thilcum tinctorium is now synonymous with F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788).
(Illustrations: 1 & 2. Portrait of Molina and map of Chile from Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili, Bologna, 2nd ed., 1810.)
Molinae – Named in honor of the celebrated Chilean Jesuit priest and scientist, Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) (see also). A very pale-flowered selection of F. magellanica was described as F. magellanica var. molinae (Espinoza 1929). This designation, however, no longer has any taxonomic status and should now only be written as F. magellanica 'Molinae.' F. magellanica 'Alba' (Clarence Elliot 1932) and "Eburnea' (Pisano 1979) are generally considered to be two further pale-flowered horticultural selections that are the same, or so close to the same, as 'Molinae' as to be synonyms.
Mollis – Soft. F. mollis (E.H.L. Krause 1906) is a synonym of F. alpestris (Gardner 1843).
Montana – Of the mountains. F. montana (Cambess. 1830) is a synonym of F. coccinea (Aiton 1789).
Muncaster, Kathleen – See National Collections (UK).
Multiflora – Having many flowers. F. multiflora (Linnaeus 1774) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788).Munz, Phillip A. (1892-1974) – Munz was an American botanist and taxonomist at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in Claremont, California as well as a professor of botany at adjacent Pomona College, where he also served as dean for three years. His work was primarily devoted to the native plants of that state. Munz, along with fellow Californian botanist David D. Keck (1903-1995), compiled and published A California Flora in 1959 (Supplement, 1968). He was also the author of a series of a still-popular plant guides, the California Wildflower Books, published by the University of California Press. They were written for general readers interested in botany. In 1943, Munz published the seminal “A Revision of the Genus Fuchsia (Onagraceae)” in a volume of the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (December 1943) dedicated as a Festschrift to Alice B.Eastwood's fiftieth anniversary at the Academy. The long article was both a tribute and a recognition of his friend Eastwood's long-standing interest in fuchsias, in the garden and in science, and can arguably be considered the starting point of modern academic study of the genus as a whole. F. munzii (Macbride 1941) was named in Munz's honor but is now synonymous with F. corymbiflora. See F. corymbiflora in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustrations: 1. The cover of Munz's Introduction to California Desert Wildflowers; 2. Plate 1 in "A Revision of the Genus Fuchsia (Onagraceae)" illustrating several Quelusia section fuchsias and three others.)
Munzii – Named in honor of Phillip A. Munz (1892-1974). F. munzii (Macbride 1941) is now synonymous with F. corymbiflora. See: Munz; F. corymbiflora in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Mutis, José Celestino (1732-1808) – José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio was a celebrated Spanish priest, physician, mathematician and botanist who led the Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of New Granada (see also) from 1783 until his death in 1808. Born in Cádiz in 1732, Mutis first studied at the College of Surgery in Cádiz where he was educated in medicine, physics, chemistry and botany. In 1755, he graduated from the University of Seville, becoming a doctor of medicine in 1757. From 1757 to 1760 he served as an interim professor of anatomy in Madrid, where he continued to study botany at the Royal Botanical Garden, as well as astronomy and mathematics. In September 1760, Mutis left Spain to serve as private physician for Pedro Messía de la Cerda (1700-1783), the viceroy of New Granada from 1761-1773, arriving at Santa Fe de Bogotá in February 1761. He began keeping a Diario de Observaciones on the long passage to the New World, which he continued until 1791. From the moment of his arrival in New Granada, Mutis continued with his studies and many interests, especially botany, even being ordained a priest in 1772. After Messía de la Cerda's tenure as viceroy, Mutis retired to the town of San Sebastian de Mariquita, located about a hundred miles north-west of Bogotá, where he continued with his botanical endeavors. From Santa Fe de Bogotá, and later in Mariquita, Mutis was in regular correspondence with many major European scientists and botanists, including Carl Linnaeus, who eagerly received his reports of new plants from the Americas. In 1784, Mutis was appointed a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and also became a member of the Royal Academy of Medicine.Already in 1763, and again in 1764, Mutis proposed an expedition to study the flora and fauna of the extensive territories of New Granada. It would not be until 1783, however, that the Charles III finally authorized an expedition at the intercession of Mustis's friend, Archbishop Antonio Caballero y Góngora (1723-1796), the new viceroy of New Granada from 1782-1789. The Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of New Granada would last until 1816 and its leadership over twenty-five became Mutis's life's work until his death. In 1790, he returned to Santa Fe de Bogotá to headquarter the expedition there. Following the Linnaean system of classification, Mutis developed a meticulous methodology that included collecting specimens in the field together with detailed descriptions, including data about the surrounding environment. When Alexander von Humboldt visited with Mutis for over two months during his own expedition to South America in 1801, he would express much admiration for his methods and botanical collecting. Some six thousand new species would be discovered during the expedition's long course and almost seven thousand drawings, with twenty-thousand additional plates, covering 2,738 different taxa were produced and sent, on to the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid, along with many herbarium specimens and much other related materials. Mutis published little himself but a number of the expedition's discoveries would be described by his European colleagues. Unfortunately, like the similarly fated Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain, the great treasure of Mutis's magnum opus would languish once in Madrid, unedited and unpublished, the victim of official disinterest and apathy and the vagaries of politics and war. See Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
(Illustration: 1. Portrait of José Celestino Mutis; 2. Partially colored drawing of a fuchsia species collected during the expedition and later determined to be F. venusta (Kunth 1823). Drawings of the Royal Botanical Expedition to the New Kingdom of Granada, t. 2518 (1783-1816)
Myrinia – Named in honor of the Swedish botanist Claus (Claës) Gustaf Myrin (1803-1835). Myrinia microphylla (Lilja 1840) is now synonymous with F. microphylla in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Myrtifolia – Having leaves resembling those of the Myrtle, or Myrtus. F. myrtifolia (Koehne 1893) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788).
- N - ONana – Small, dwarf. See F. nana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
National Collections (UK) – Over six hundred and fifty collections of living plants in the United Kingdom are designated as "National Collections" under a scheme of the National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (➤ Plant Heritage) due to their extent and importance. For fuchsias there are the following eight collections:1. ➤ Hardy Fuchsia, University of Leicester Botanic Garden; 2. ➤ Hardy Fuchsia, Kathleen Muncaster Fuchsias; 3. ➤ Fuchsias, Riverside Fuchsia and Pelargonium Nursery; 4. ➤ Fuchsia (Hardy Species & Cultivars), Silver Dale Nurseries; 5. ➤ Fuchsias (Hardy Species & Cultivars), Croxteth Hall and Country Park; 6. ➤ Fuchsia Cultivars Introduced by James Lye, James Lye Fuchsias; 7. ➤ Fuchsia sect. Quelusia, Harlow Carr; 8. ➤ Fuchsia Species, Jack Lamb.
Nectar - A sweet liquid secreted by flowers from the nectary. It's consumed by pollinators, such as hummingbirds or bees, who brush past pollen in one flower to deposit in another during their feeding.
Nectary – The glandular organ within a flower that secrets nectar.
Nigricans – Black. See F. nigricans in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Nitid – Bright, lustrous or shining.
Node – The point of the stem at the leaf axil. Rooting in fuchsia cuttings will occur more rapidly from this point than from the internode so this fact should be taken into consideration when taking cuttings.
Nomenclature – The set of rules used to form the terms, such as the names of plants and animals, in any particular field of science. (For a good FAQ on current nomenclatural procedures within botany, see ➤ Mycologia.)
Northwest Fuchsia Society – Fuchsia society located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. There are a number of affiliated local branches and it publishes the Fuchsia Fan four times a year. The society hosted a national fuchsia convention, ➤ West Coast Wonders, in Seattle-Tacoma in 2008. See ➤ NWFS.
Notarisii – F. notarisii (Lehm. 1852) is now a synonym of F. microphylla (Kunth 1823).
Obconica – An inverted cone. See F. obconica in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Oblanceolate – Shaped with the top wider than the bottom. The term is applied to fuchsia leaves with this general outline.
Obovate – Teardrop-shaped. The term is applied to fuchsia leaves with this general outline.
Olivas Adobe – A California Historical Landmark (No. 115) and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in (1979), the Olivas Adobe was built in 1847 by Don Raymundo Olivas (d. 1879) in Ventura, California (then part of Mexico) on a large grant of secularized land that he had received in recognition of his services from the Presidio de Santa Barbara in 1841. Originally part of the Mission San Buenaventura, his wife—and some of their twenty-one children—continued to live here until 1899. The ranch was then broken up and the house passed through several owners, including the "Yeast King" Max Fleischman, until it was donated to the City of Ventura as a museum in 1974. The adobe is said to be haunted by the ghost of a woman but its most important occupants are the ancient fuchsias in its front garden. The cultivar is 'Schiller' and the fuchsias were planted in 1899 by Maria Olivas, the youngest daughter of the large Olivas family, just before the house was sold in 1900. Two of Maria's plants survive and are the oldest living fuchsias recorded growing in the United States.Onagraceae – Also known as the Willowherb or Evening Primrose family, the genus Fuchsia is a member. Besides Fuchsia, the family includes a number of other popular garden plants, such as evening primroses (Oenothera), white gaura (Gaura lindheimeri), or mountain garland (Clarkia unguiculata). The widely distributed fireweed or rosebay willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium) is also a common weed in gardens.
This cosmopolitan and widely distributed plant family, of which Oenothera is the type species, contains approximately 640 to 650 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees divided into approximately twenty-three or twenty-four genera. The family is divided into two subfamilies, the Ludwigioidiae, which contains the single species Ludwigia, and the Onagroideae, further divided into six tribes. Along with the most closely related Circaea, Fuchsia is placed Circaeeae tribe within the Onagroidiae subfamily.
Onagraceae species are found on every continent (expect Antarctica) and range from boreal to tropical regions (except the arid regions of Australia and Africa). They are characterized by flowers usually with four sepals and four petals, generally pollinated by bees but also by hummingbirds and butterflies. The seeds are very small. In some genera, such as Epilobium, they have a tuft of down and are dispersed by the wind. In others, such as Fuchsia, the seeds are contained in a berry and are dispersed by birds. The leaves are most commonly opposite or whorled, spirally arranged in some species, and are generally simple and lanceolate in shape.
Chamerion Raf. ex Holub
Gongylocarpus Schltdl. & Cham.
Megacorax Elizondo et al
Camissoniopsis W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Chylismia (Torr. & A.Gray) Raim.
Chylismiella (Munz) W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Eremothera (P.H.Raven) W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Eucharidium Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Eulobus Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray
Neoholmgrenia W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Taraxia (Torr. & A.Gray) Raim.
Tetrapteron (Munz) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
Xylonagra Donn.Sm. & Rose
(Illustration: Plate from Illustration of the Principal Natural Orders of the Vegetable Kingdom, Walter Hood Fitch, 1874.)
Onagroideae – Along with Ludwigioideae, one of two subfamilies in the Onagraceae (see also). Fuchsia is a member species of this subfamily.
Opposite – Leaves that are arranged in pairs across from each other along a plant's stem. (See also Ternate.)
Oregon Fuchsia Society – American fuchsia society established in 1944 and centered in Portland, Washington. The society hosted a national fuchsia convention, ➤ The Oregon Trail of Fuchsias, in 2010. See ➤ OFS.
Osgood, Wilfred (1875-1947) – Osgood was the assistant curator of mammalogy and ornithology from 1909 to 1921, and then curator of zoology from 1921 to 1940, at the Field Museum in Chicago. He also collected many plant specimens for the Museum on his expeditions. F. osgoodii, which he first collected, was named in his honor (Macbride 1941) but is now synonymous with F. andrei (Johnston 1925). See F. andrei in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Osgoodii – Named in honor of Wilfred Osgood (1875-1947). F. osgoodii, described from a specimen which he collected, was named in his honor (Macbride 1941) but is now synonymous with F. andrei (Johnston 1925). See: Osgood; F. andrei in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Orientalis – From the east. See F. orientalis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Ovalis – Oval. See F. ovalis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Ovary – The rounded part at the base of the stem which contains the ovules. After fertilization, it swells and encases the seeds.
Ovata – Ovate or egg-shaped. F. ovata (Moçino & Sessé ex DC. 1828) is a synonym of F. parviflora (Lindley 1827).
Ovate – Egg-shaped. The term is usually applied to fuchsia leaves with this general outline.
Ovule – The structure that develops into a seed after fertilization.
- P - QPachyrrhiza – Having thick roots, thick footed. See F. pachyrrhiza in ➤ Section Pachyrrhiza. (Note: The term is often spelled as pachyrhiza by botanists. F. pachyrrhiza, however, should always correctly retain its double Rs as that was how it was originally described and published by Berry & Stein in 1988.)
Pallescens – Palid or pale; becoming palid or pale. See F. pallescens in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Palo Blanco – Common name occasionally recorded in Chile for F. magellanica. Chilco, however, is more usual.
Palo de Yegua – Common name in Chile for F. lycioides. Also sometimes called palo falso. However, the name Palo de yegua is also applied to another unrelated Chilean native, Senecio yegua (Acrisione denticulata), the palpalén.Paniculates – The relatively small individual blossoms of the two species in the Schufia section are carried in terminal clusters, looking similar to lilacs, called panicles. As recent breeders are increasingly incorporating F. arborescens or F. paniculata into their crosses, the resulting plants with similarly branched inflorescences are often termed paniculates. Examples of this group include such new cultivars as 'Miep Aalhuizen' 'Lechlade Gorgon' and 'First Success.'
(Illustration: 'First Success'.)Panicle – A lilac-like, loosely branched flowering unit that consists of a number of clusters or racemes of smaller individual blossoms. Panicles in fuchsias might often contain both flowers and berries as newer blossoms continue opening towards the tip and older ones at the base have gone to fruit.
(Illustration: A blossoming panicle on F. paniculata; See also the illustration under Berries for the same species in full fruit.)
Paniculata – Flowers held in panicles. See F. paniculata in ➤ Section Schufia of which there are two subspecies. Because both bear flowers in similar lilac-like panicles, F. paniculata is often confused with its close relative, F. arborescens. However, it generally forms a smaller shrub growing only roughly to half the size of the later. Its more variably shaped leaves are also generally smaller, with a ridged surface and distinctively minutely to coarsely serrated margins. F. arborescens, on the other hand, generally forms a larger shrub or small tree with smoother and more consistently shaped, oblanceolate leaves that have an entire margin. There are also other tell-tale differences in the flowers as well. The unopened buds of F. paniculata, for example, are comparatively more long and narrow than those of F. arborescens, which are broader and more blunted towards the tip. See also Arborescens.
Páramo – A variety of similar neotropical alpine ecosystems found above the continuous forest line but below the permanent snow line and characterized by a vegetation dominated by grasses, shrubs and giant rosette-forming plants. While some scientists use the term broadly, páramo most particularly refers to those high altitude ecosystems located in the northern Andes of South America, specifically in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, and some adjacent areas of southern Central America. The classification can be further broken down into the superpáramo and subpáramo. The superpáramo generally occurs between 4,500 to 4,800 meters in altitude and is a transitional zone with the lowest temperatures, precipitation and poorest soils. The subpáramo is a lower and more diverse transitional zone. It generally occurs between 3,000 to 3,500 meters in altitude and combines the characteristics of both the grass-dominated páramo above and the forest below, containing small, scattered trees, or even pockets of forest in sheltered microclimates. See also Campos de Altitude.
(Illustration: Páramo in the Sumapaz National Park in Colombia, photo by ➤ Yuri Romero Picon, Wikipedia, 2008.)
Parviflora – Having small flowers. F. parviflora (Zucc. 1837) is a synonym of F. encliandra subsp. encliandra (Steudel 1840).Pavón, José Antonio (1754-1840) – José Antonio Pavón y Jiménez was a Spanish pharmacologist and botanist perhaps best know for his participation in the Botanicial Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru that took place between 1779 and 1788. Pavón, along with the French physician and botanist Joseph Dombey (until 1784), had been selected to assist Hipólito Ruiz on this major scientific exploration of Spanish possessions in the Americas commissioned by the reformist Spanish king, Charles III. The expedition was a major success and returned to the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid in 1788 with more than ten thousand engravings, 2,254 botanical drawings with descriptions and numerous other materials. Ruiz, along with Pavón, would publish the results in a number of volumes. A member of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Madrid, Pavón would also be inducted into the Linnaean Society in London in 1820. See also Ruiz; Ruiz & Pavón; Royal Botanicial Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru.
(Illustrations: 1. Cinchona hirsuta (Ruiz & Pavon 1799), Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis, Plates 153-325, Vol. 2, Tab. 192 (1798-1802). Of intense interest in Europe at the time was the pharmacology of New World plants, especially important ones such as Cinchona, the source of the invaluable anti-malarial drug, quinine; 2. Autograph label from a specimen collection of Cinchona apparently made by Pavón at "los Azogues de Loxa" (Loja; Azogues is today in Ecuador's Cañar Province) during the expedition.)
Pedicel – The stalk of individual flower; a stalk bearing a single flower within a cluster (see also Peduncle).
Peduncle – The axis of an inflorescence; the stalk supporting an inflorescence; the short stalk at the base of a leaf or reproductive structure (see also pedicle).
Pelargoniums – See Geraniums.
Pendientes de la Reina – Common name for the fuchsia in some Spanish-speaking areas. Literally "Queen's Eardrops." There is often an association with the Virgin Mary, as the Queen of Heaven, and the form, Pendientes de la Virgen, is sometimes found. See also Aljaba, Chilco, Corales, Coralitos.
Pendula – Pendant, hanging. F. pendula (Salisb. 1796) is a synonym of F. coccinea in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Penduliflora – With pendant or hanging flowers. F. x peduliflora (Hook.f 1877) is an unresolved name.
Pendulina – Pendulous, hanging. F. x pendulina (Veitch 1856) is an unresolved name.
Perbrevis – Very small or little. F. perbrevis (I.M.Johnston 1925) is a synonym of F. verrucosa ➤ Section Verrucosa.
Perfect Flowers – Bisexual flowers on which both the male and female reproductive parts are contained within the same flower. See also Breeding Systems.
Perianth – The outermost part of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla together.
Perscandens – Scrambling. See F. perscandens in ➤ Section Skinnera.
Personal Name – See Fuchsia (personal name).
Pests & Diseases – See Aphids, Caspid Bug, Fuchsia Gall Mite, Fuchsia Rust, Red Spider Mite, Vine Weevil, Whitefly.
Petal – A single part of the corolla. Fuchsia blossoms naturally have four petals in the corolla. (See also Double, Semi-double, Single.)
Petaloid – Smaller outer petals of the corolla.
Petiolaris – Having a remarkable leaf stalk. See F. petiolaris in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Petiole – The leaf stalk.
Phenotype – The appearance of a plant as influenced by the environment on its genotype, or inherited genetic code. In its simplest terms, there is often a distinct difference in flower and leaf color and size, for example, when the same fuchsia hybrid is grown in a bright or sunny exposure as opposed to a more shady one. Another example might be species that are naturally liana-like or vine-like, such a Fuchsia regia, when scrambling through, over, or into brush and trees, but will grow more compact, upright and shrub-like when exposed.
Photosynthesis – The chemical process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into stored energy in the form of sugar molecules using energy from sunlight. Oxygen molecules are released as a by-product. This process take place primarily in chloroplasts (see also), located in a plant's leaves, using chlorphyll (see also).
Pilaloensis – From Pilaló in Cotopaxi Province in Ecuador. See F. pilaloensis in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Pilosa – Covered in soft, fine hairs. See F. pilosa in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Pilose – Covered with soft, fine hairs. Some fuchsias, such as F. alpestris or F. bracelinae, have leaves and stems that can be very densely pilose especially in young growth. Since the more pilose fuchsia species have not been commonly used for crosses, this trait is not usually seen in any garden cultivars.
Pinching – Also called stopping. The removal of the growing tip of a branch. Pinching or stopping will encourage side buds to break from the leaf axils and result in a bushier, more floriferous plant. A plant will often be pinched or stopped several times before it's left to flower for the season.
Pistil – The female division of the flower which consists of the ovary, stigma and style.
Pistillate Flowers – Female flowers in which the male reproductive parts are absent or reduced to sterility. See also Breeding Systems.
The Plant List – An on-line project undertaken by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden that combines several institutional checklists to create a working list of all known plant species. The first version, released in December 2010, aimed to be comprehensive for species of Vascular plant (flowering plants, conifers, ferns and their allies) and for Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts). It does not include currently algae or fungi but contains 1,244,871 million scientific plant names of which 298,900 are accepted species names and the rest synonyms. No vernacular or common plant names are included. You can see all current accepted and synonymous species names within Fuchsia at ➤ The Fuchsia Plant List.
Plant Patent – The abbreviation PPAF (Plant Patent applied For) will sometimes be seen on commercially raised plants in the United States and indicates an application for a plant patent from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office that "precludes others from asexually reproducing or selling or using the patented plant. A plant patent expires 20 years from the filing date of the patent application." Plants for which patents have already been granted will have a patent number in the format "PP# 00,000" on the label. Plants become public domain when the patent expires.
Platypetala – Broad-petalled. F. platypetala (I.M Johnston 1939) is an unresolved name.Plumier, Charles (1646–1704) – Father Charles Plumier was the Minim monk and French botanist generally credited with the discovery of the first fuchsia. Nothing is known of his very early life except that he was born in Marseille and entered the religious order of the Minims there at the age of sixteen. He devoted himself to scientific studies with the Minims, studied botany for a period in Italy, and eventually returned to France to became a pupil of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708), the noted botanist and professor at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, whom he accompanied on botanical explorations. Plumier's botanical connections, and his meticulous collections and observations along the coasts of Provence and the Languedoc, of course brought him to the attention of fellow scientists, as well as the royal government in Paris.In 1689, he was asked by Joseph Donat Surian (d. 1691; see also), a pharmacist and physician also from Marseille, to accompany him as his illustrator and writer on an official government mission to the French Antilles. The pair remained in the Caribbean for a year and a half and the publication of the journey, Description des Plantes d'Amérique in 1693, resulted in Plumier's appointment as a Royal Botanist. Plumier was then sent back to the Antilles on a second journey in 1693, and on yet a third in 1695, assisted there by the Dominican botanist and missionary Jean-Baptiste Labat (1663-1738). The materials he gathered were prodigious and only partially released in his Nova Plantarum Americanum Genera (Paris, 1703). It was in this work, though, that Plumier first described Fuchsia triphylla, flore coccineo, found growing on Hispaniola during the course of the third expedition in about 1696–97. He baptized the new genus in honor of the celebrated German physician and botanist, Leonard Fuchs (see also).With his next publication on the French Antilles awaiting release in 1704 as the Traité des Fougères de l'Amérique (Paris, 1705), Plumier was asked by the French government to undertake a fourth exploratory trip, this time to Peru to investigate the true Cinchona tree, the bark of which was the source of the important anti-malarial drug, quinine. Unfortunately, he died of pleurisy that same year at the Minim Monastery of Our Lady of Victory, in Puerto de Santa Maria near Cadíz, while waiting to embark on the first leg of the trip. It's interesting to think what such an accomplished and meticulous botanist as Plumier might have discovered in Peru, earlier rather than later, had he lived to make the journey.At his death Plumier left mountains of unpublished materials behind. In the French National Library in Paris, there are thirty-one manuscript volumes containing his notes and descriptions. Additionally, there are about six thousand of his drawings, four thousand of which are plants, while the remainder illustrate American animals, especially birds and fishes. Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738), a celebrated professor of botany and medicine at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, had 508 of Plumier's drawings copied for him. They were later published in Plumier's honor by Johannes Burman (1707–1780), an professor of botany in Amsterdam who had studied under Boerhaave and even employed a young Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) to complete a flora of Ceylon for him during his stay there in 1735, as the Plantarum americanarum, quas olim Carolus Plumerius botanicorum princeps detexit in 1755–1760. Linnaeus would use the drawings in this volume to accept Plumier's Fuchsia in the sixth edition of his Genera Plantarum as Fuchsia triphylla.Plumier also wrote treatises for the Journal des Savants and for the Mémoires de Trévoux. An especially interesting one is based on his observations in Martinique and proves that the cochineal belongs among the insects in the animal kingdom. Perhaps Plumier's most interesting work, though, is of an entirely different character and considerably outside the fields of science and botany. Plumier wrote and illustrated, L'Art de tourner, a volume of practice and instruction for turning wood on a lathe in 1701. This authoritative publication on what was apparently his hobby was widely disseminated – translated even into a Russian edition by Peter the Great himself in St. Petersburg – and would remain the definitive work on the subject until well into the nineteenth century. It's such an odd, yet very accomplished, area of expertise for this scientist that it's been suggested he was exposed to wood turning in his early years in a workshop or that Plumier's unknown father might have been a cabinet maker of some sort.
(Illustrations: 1. Portrait of Plumier (Nova Plantarum, 1704); 2. F. triphylla illustrated on Plate 14 in Nova Plantarum. 3. View across Cadiz's harbor towards the Puerto de Santa María where Plumier died in 1704 (Basset, Paris, 1700), ; 5. Plate of Fuchsia from Burman's Plantarum americanarum, quas olim Carolus Plumerius botanicorum princeps detexit in (1755–1760). It shares the page with Gesneria.)
Pollen – The powdery substance produced in the fuchsia's anthers. Pollen contains the male reproductive cells, male gametes or sperm cells. Fertilization results when pollen cells are carried to the stigmas of other flowers by wind or insects, or by the intentional hand of the hybridizer, and germinate to transfer the sperm to the ovule via a pollen tube.
Pollenizer – The plant that is a source of pollen in the pollination process. In stating the parentage of crosses, such as F. magellanica 'Molinae' x F. excorticata for 'Whiteknight's Amethyst', the plant listed first is the female parent followed secondly by the pollenizer. The term shouldn't be confused with a pollinator (see also).Pollinator – Any agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization (syngamy) of the female gamete in the ovule by the male gamete in the pollen grain. In fuchsias, hummingbirds are the pollinators most closely associated with the genus in their native habitats and the flowers seem specifically evolved to attract these birds. Bees, however, are as prolific pollinators of fuchsias as they are of most other flowers, even in the plants' native habitats. (Illustration: A bee visiting F. magellanica blossoms in Patagonia.)
Pollinization – The process by which pollen is transferred from the anthers to the surface of the stigma enabling fertilization and sexual reproduction in plants
Polyantha – Having many flowers. See F. polyantha (Killip ex Munz 1943) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Polyanthella – F. polyanthella (I.M. Johnston 1925) is a synonym of F. ovalis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Polyploid, Polyploidy – Having multiple sets of chromosomes.Popping Fuchsias – Popping Fuchsias: Poems, 1987-1992 (1992) is a book of poems by the British-born academic and poet, Robin Skelton (1925-1997). In 1963, Skelton began teaching at the University of Victoria in British Columbia. An authority on Irish literature, he was also well known for his work as a literary editor (he was a co-founder and editor of The Malahat Review) and translator. Known as a practicing Wiccan, he published a number of books on the subject of the occult and neopagan religions. Skelton was born in Eaasington, Yorkshire and ➤ Popping Fuchias, the poem that gave its title to the collection, begins, "Beside the front steps, of my boyhood schoolhouse, bloomed a fuchsia, rich with fascination…" ➤ Popping Fuchsias.
Porcher, Pierre-Félix (1797-1878) – Félix Porcher was president and co-founder of the Société d'Horticulture d'Orléans in France. His article on fuchsias, which had first appeared in the Society's Bulletin, was published as the first book on Fuchsias, Le Fuchsia, son histoire et sa culture, in 1844 and listed three hundred fuchsias. A second edition, released in 1848, was substantially expanded to list well over five hundred. Porcher published four books on fuchsias in all, the last one in 1874.
Pot bound – The condition where a plant's roots have filled all the available space of the soil in a pot. Some plants are maintained in this condition to induce flowering or dwarfing for bonsai. Vigorously performing plants such as fuchsias, however, will benefit from potting on, or top and root pruning into fresh soil, to maintain their strength and flowering.
Pot on – To place a plant into larger pot to keep it growing. It's usually best to pot on in small increments to avoid empty soil from becoming water-logged and stagnant before a plant's roots can reach into it.
Pot up – To pot new cuttings for the first time.
Propagation – Increasing plants by seed or cuttings. Most garden fuchsias are complex hybrids that won't come true from seed so need to be increased through cuttings to maintain their desirable characteristics.
Pringlei – Named for Cyrus G. Pringle (1838-1911), an American botanist who catalogued North American plants, especially those of Mexico. He is especially noted for the sheer number of new species he discovered. F. pringlei (B.L.Rob. & Seaton 1893) is a synonym of F. thymifolia in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Pringsheim, Nathanael – Pringsheim was a celebrated German botanist, considered one of the leaders of the great botanical renaissance of the 19th century, who made many important contributions, especially in the field of phycology. In 1858, he founded the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Botanik, which he edited until his death. He was also founder and first president of the German Botanical Society in 1882. Astonishingly, Pringsheim carried out most of his research in his own private laboratory in Berlin and only held a university professorship at Jena from 1864-1868. See F. pringsheimii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Pringsheimii – Named in honor of Nathanael Pringsheim (1823-1894). See: Pringsheim; F. pringsheimii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Procumbens – Lying along the ground. See F. procumbens in ➤ Section Procumbentes.
Prostrata – Prostrate. F. prostrata (Baill. 1880) is a synonym of F. procumbens in ➤ Section Procumbentes.
Proximal – Close to the point of attachment or origin. For example, the proximal end of a branch. See also Distal.
Pubescens – Covered with short, downy hairs. F. pubescens (Cambess. 1830) is a synonym of F. regia subsp. reitzii in ➤ Section Quelusia, See also F. rivularis subsp. pubescens in ➤ Section Fuchsia, which is one of two subspecies.
Pulchella – Pretty. F. pulchella (Woodson & Seibert 1937) is a synonym of F. microphylla subsp. hemsleyana in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Pumila – Small. dwarf. F. pumila (Voss) Voss 1894) and F. pumila (Meun. 1926) are both synonyms of F. magellanica in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Putumayensis – From the Putumayo Department in Colombia. See F. putumayensis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Pyramid – A specimen fuchsia that has been trained into a tall pointed shape with a wide base. An upright stem is selected and grown to about two feet. The tip is then removed and side shots are allowed to develop. These are stopped at two or three sets or leaves. The top shoot, however, is grown on for another two feet before it's stopped, along again with the previously stopped side shoots on the lower level. The process is repeated until the desired height and base width are reached. It will usually take two years to create a large-sized specimen. Such large pyramids were a particular favorite during the Victorian period and their appearance was a testament to the abilities of many estate or public gardens and their gardeners (as well as to the costly heated greenhouses necessary to grow them on slowly over the winter). A similar shape, the cone, is considered to be narrower at the base. See also Biennial Method.
Pyrifolia – Having leaves leaves like a Pyrus, or pear. F. pyrifolia (C. Presl. 1834) is a synonym of F. regia in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Quaternate – Arranged in sets of four.
Quelusia – Named for Queluz Palace, the summer residence of the former Kings of Portugal, located in Queluz near Lisbon. Domenico Vandelli, first applied Quelusia to a Brazilian fuchsia, listed without a specific epithet but probably F. coccinea, provided by Joaquim Veloso de Miranda. José Mariano de Conceição Veloso also used Quelusia regia in his Florae Fluminensis (1825–27). The name was synonymized with Fuchsias but revived by the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778 -1841) for the Quelusia section of the genus in 1828. See ➤ Section Quelusia.
Quercetorum – From oak forests. See F. microphylla ssp. quercetorum in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Quinduensis – From Quindio, Colombia. Grammatically, the species epithet should more properly be rendered "quindiuensis". F. quinduensis (Kunth 1823) is a synonym of F. petiolaris in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
- R - SRaceme – An often terminal flower cluster borne at the ends of branches in which the individual blossoms are arranged tightly on short stalks along a rachis, or central stem. F. boliviana (illustrated at the right) is an example of a raceme in fuchsias.
(Illustration: F. boliviana.)
Racemosa – With flower clusters held in racemes (see previous). F. racemosa (Lam. 1788) is an illegitimate name and a synonym of F. triphylla in ➤ Section Fuchsia. F. racemosa (Sessé & Moç. 1888) is illegitimate, as well, and a synonym of F. fulgens in ➤ Section Ellobium.
Rachis – The main or central axis of a compound structure. It can be the main stem of a compound leaf or of a compound inflorescence, such as a panicle or raceme, as found in some fuchsia species.
Radicans – Having roots shooting from the stems. F. radicans (Miers 1841) is a synonym of F. regia subsp. serrae in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Ramose – Branched.
Rank – Rank is the level, or relative position, in a taxonomic hierarchy. The main ranks in botany are domain (regio in Latin), kingdom (regnum), division (divisio), class (classis), order (ordo), family (familia), genus (genus) and species (species).
Raven, Peter (b. 1936) – Raven (b. 1936) was director of the Missouri Botanical Garden from 1971-2011. In 2000, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists established the Peter Raven Award for authors who have made outstanding contributions to plant taxonomy. See F. ravenii in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Ravenii – Named in honor of Peter H. Raven (b. 1936) See: Raven; F. ravenii in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Recurvata – Bent backwards. F. recurvata (Niven ex Hook. 1836) is a synonym of F. magellanica Lam. in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Red Spider Mite – Tetranychus urticae. These minute pests usually only flourish in the hot and dry conditions fuchsias dislike. Problems are most likely to occur when overwintering plants inside the greenhouse, or under lights, but can also happen outside in hot, dry positions in the summer. Increasing protection from the sun and adding additional, cooler humidity generally helps reestablish conditions which are unfavorable to the mites. Severe infestations will quickly defoliate a plant so additional organic or chemical controls might be needed.
Reflexed – Bent or turned downward.
Regia – Royal or kingly. See F. regia in ➤ Section Quelusia, of which there are three subspecies.
Reiter, Victor, Jr. (1903-1986) – Renowned American nurseryman, horticulturalist and hybridizer of fuchsias, among many other plants, who operated La Rochette Nursery in San Francisco, California. Reiter help found the California Horticultural Society in 1933 from a group of local growers and gardeners who came together to compare notes after a freak freeze decimated plants in the area. During the Thirties, he developed the nursery on property behind the house he had purchased on Stanyan Street in 1926, purchasing additional property as it expanded. This famous nursery, which closed in 1963, was an early center for the dispersion of the many new fuchsias emanating from California during this period. Reiter also hosted other hybridizers, such as the well-known Horace Tiret and Clement Schnabel (see both also), as they had no facilities of their own.His numerous fuchsia crosses include: Blue Danube (1938) Firefall, Treasure Island, (1939) Dr. John Gallwey, Mrs. Victor Reiter, Rose Pillar, Schiller, Yerba Buena (1940), Falling Stars, Fanfare, Mademoiselle, Mephisto, Pastel, Reiters Giant, San Francisco, (1941) Butterfly, Cherry, Commander-in-Chief, Crescendo, Esperanza, Mariposa, Melody, Oakland, Pan America, Prodigal, Rocket, Sunrise, Victory (1942), Anna, Ave Maria (1945), Diadem, Marionette, Radiance, Red Spider, Sacramento, Stargazer, Sunburst, Titanic, Trumpeter (1946), Barrington, Brazier, Joan of Arc, Mazda, Miss Prim, Seventeen, Uncle Jules (1947), Diabolo, Golden Gate Park, Gulliver, Irish Rose, Mantilla, Pink Shower, Sea Foam, Valentine (1948), Baby Doll, Clarion, Colombine, Flying Cloud, The Dowager (1949), Crinoline, New Horizon, Niobe, Roulette (1950), Genii, Reverie, Trail Blazer (1951), Boule de Neige, Gray Lady, His Excellency, Innocence, Mrs. Lawrence Lyon, Snowball, Tutu (1952), Joan Leslie, Jubilee, Lullaby, Polar Sea (1953), Afterglow, Boudoir, Potentate, The Indian, Tumbling Waters (1954), Berkeley, Chiquita, Jamboree, Sea Sprite, Vie En Rose (1955), Calypso, Paper Dolls, and Ultramar (1956). (Illustrations: 'Mephisto', Victor Reiter, 1941.)
Reiter, Victor, Sr. (b. Luxemburg 1865 - d. San Francisco 1944). San Francisco, California plantsman and father of Victor Reiter, Jr. (see also).Reitz, Father Raulino (1919-1990) – Born in Antônio Carlos in Santa Catarina State in Brazil, Reitz was both an energetic catholic priest and a noted botanist and local historian who specialized in the flora of southern Brazil, especially the bromeliads of his beloved home state, Santa Catarina. Ordained in 1943, he continued his education and then taught a wide variety of subjects for many years at the seminary in Azambuja, Santa Catarina (1947-1971). He founded and directed the Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues in nearby Itajaí, which he started in his rooms from his specimen collections while he was still at the Seminário Central de São Leopoldo in 1942. The herbarium would find a permanent home in its own building in Itajaí and now holds 42,354 archived specimens of the flora of Santa Catarina and 11,000 from neighboring states. In 1948, he also started the annual publication, Sellowia. Later, he was the director of the Morro do Baú Botanical Park at Ilhota, as well as the director of the Azambuja Museum in Santa Catarina. From 1971-1975, he served as the director the Botanic Garden in Rio de Janeiro, where he was considered one the most active and energetic directors since its founding, and then as the director of the Fundação do Meio Ambiente (FATMA) of Santa Catarina from 1976-1983. Reitz's botanical magnum opus, however, was certainly the Flora Ilustrada Catarinense. For several decades he covered the province, square kilometer by square kilometer, "by plane, by foot, wagon, jeep, boat, train, ship, motorcycle, bicycle," with or without the promised financial support of the state government. At his death, the encyclopedic work was not quite complete but spread across an astonishing 12,489 pages contained in 149 volumes and included 2,760 prints, 1,983 maps, 149 families, 734 genera, 3,333 species, 237 varieties and 33 forms. See F. regia ssp reitzii in ➤ Section Quelusia.
(Illustration: Photo detail of Reitz from M. B. Forster, "Brazilian Visitor" in The Bromeliad Society Bulletin, Sept-Oct 1955, Volume 5, No. 5, p. 78.)
Reitzii – Named in honor of Father Raulino Reitz (1919-1990). See: Reitz; F. regia ssp reitzii in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Reproductive Systems – Like most plants, most fuchsias have hermaphroditic flowers that are termed perfect (or bisexual) in botany as both their male and female reproductive parts are contained within the same flower. This is different from some monoecious plants which have evolved to have separate staminate (or male) and pistillate (or female) flowers on the same plant. Some fuchsias, especially those in the Encliandra section however, have further evolved to be gynodioescious, where the species population is separated into individuals that have either pistillate female flowers and those that have hermaphroditic ones, or even dioecious, where staminate male and pistillate female flowers occur only on separate plants within the species population. These reproductive systems are important to consider in fuchsia hybridization programs.
Rhizome – A thickened stem, usually running horizontally underground, from which roots and shoots develop at the nodes. Rhizomes are always modified stems and should't be confused with tubers, which are different plant storage structures, and can often be formed from modified roots in addition to modified stems. See also Tuber.
Riccartonii – Referring to the village or parish of Riccarton, in East Ayrshire, south of Glasgow in Scotland. F. riccartonii (Tillery 1871) is a synonym of F. magellanica Lam. in ➤ Section Quelusia. F. x magellanica "Riccartonii" is a garden hybrid which apparently originatd in the village.
Riverside Nursery National Collection of Fuchsias – See National Collections (UK).
Rivularis – Found growing beside streams or brooks. See F. rivularis (J.F Macbr. 1940) in ➤ Section Fuchsia, which has two subspecies.
Robusta – Robust, strong. F. × robusta (Tengbergen 1855) is an unresolved name.
Rosea – Rosy, rose colored. F. rosea (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) is a synonym of F. lycioides (Andrews 1800) in ➤ Section Kierschlegeria.Royal Botanical Expeditions – When the Spanish king, Charles III (1716-1788), who had previously ruled in Italy as the king of Naples and Sicily, ascended the throne of Spain in 1759, he found a country and empire suffering from malaise and decay. He began instituting reforms that sought to weaken the extensive power of the Church and its monasteries and instead promoted universities and academic learning in areas of science and scholarly research, health and medicine, and agriculture. His more enlightened policies also sought to facilitate trade and commerce and he aimed overall at avoiding costly wars that might interfere with the health and well being of his far-flung dominions. Under his reform-minded policies, three major official expeditions to explore the botanical riches of Spanish possessions in the New World were launched. These include the Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru (1779-1788), which would be published in a number of works, and the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain (1787-1803), which effort would unfortunately largely languish until the nominal publication of its collections in 1889 and 1891. Both expeditions did, however, result in the discovery of a number of new fuchsia species. The third expedition, the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada (1783-1816) lasted well over thirty years and its results remained unpublished in their entirety until 1952 due to the enormous scope and area of the collections. It also managed to collect a number of fuchsia species, though. A fourth botanical expedition was led by Juan de Cuéllar to the Philippines (1786–97) and involved no fuchsias. See each American expedition below.
(Illustration: Portrait of Charles III of Spain, 1861, Anton Raphael Mengs (1728–1779)Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of New Granada – Real Expedición Botánica al Virreinato de Nueva Granada. One of the four major expeditions of botanical exploration commissioned by Spain's reformist monarch, Charles III, the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada occurred between 1783 and 1816 and covered it territories in present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, part of Peru and northern-western Brazil, and western Guyana. It was led by the Spanish priest, mathematician and botanist, José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio (1732-1808) (see also) until his death, and then by his nephew, Sinforoso Mutis (1773-1822), until it ended in 1816. Mutis had already proposed the expedition in 1763 and again in 1764. Subsequently resisting being part of the Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru (1779-1788), already being led by Hipólito Ruiz (see both also), his own proposal was not finally accepted until a third request was made to the king on his behalf by Archbishop Antonio Caballero y Góngora (1723-1796), the viceroy of New Granada from 1782-1789. The expedition was formally launched from Mutis's home in Mariquita (Colombia) in 1783. In 1790, the expedition's headquarters were moved to Santa Fe de Bogotá (Bogotá, Colombia), at the capital of New Granada.Mutis immediately recruited a large contingent of experts that included botanists Juan Eloy Valenzuela y Mantilla (1756-1834) and Fray Diego García (1745-1794), geographers Bruno Landete and José Camblor, as well as large group of painters including Pablo Antonio Garcia, Francisco Javier Matiz, Anthonio and Nicholás Cortéz. Vicente Sánchez, Antonio Barrionuevo, and Vicente Silva. Others included the foreman Roque Gutierrez, several collectors and even a messenger. Many other participants were engaged over the expedition's long course, such as the botanists Francisco Antonio Zea and Sinforoso Mutis (his nephew who would lead the project after 1808), the geographer Francisco José de Caldas, the mineralogist Enrique de Umaña, chemist and zoologist Jorge Tadeo Lozano, copyists Francisco Javier Zabaraín and José María Carbonell, and José Antonio Cándamo, who was employed to oversee the expedition's herbarium in Santa Fe de Bogotá.
Along with the expedition's regular activities, Mutis also started a free school of drawing and an astronomical observatory in Santa Fe de Bogotá as well. Several smaller expeditions extended the expedition's geographical coverage. One such effort was led by Francisco José de Caldas, who explored the area of present-day Ecuador for four years, before returning to Santa Fe de Bogotá in 1808 with an extensive collection. Another, led by Fray Diego Garcia, explored the upper Magdalena River Valley before reaching Andaquíes (Colombia) and collected numerous animal and geological specimens. Eloy Valenzuela, deputy director of the expedition during its first year, was to have covered Santander Province, but that expedition was cut short due to his poor health.Mutis led the Royal Botanical Expedition for twenty-five years, during which time it probably covered and explored an area that extended over three-thousand square miles (8,000 sq. km). Even before the expedition was approved and launched, Mutis had regular contacts with many prominent European scientists, including Carl Linnaeus. Following the Linnaean system of classification, he developed a meticulous methodology that included collecting specimens in the field together with detailed descriptions, including data about the surrounding environment. Some six thousand new species would be discovered during the expedition's long course and almost seven thousand drawings, with twenty-thousand additional plates, covering 2,738 different taxa were produced. When Alexander von Humboldt visited with Mutis for over two months during his own expedition to South America in 1801, he would express much admiration for his methods and praise for his botanical collecting.A number of fuchsias, of course, are among the bounty of the expedition's many collections and illustrations. The current identity of many of these plants still needs to be sorted out, though.
While the collations between of the expedition's notes and plates were unfortunately lost in a shipwreck, the enormous collections of drawings and plates, maps, correspondences, notes, manuscripts, herbarium specimens and many other related materials are today preserved at the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid, with a small part at the Real Academia de la Historia. Little was published directly by Multis himself, and much of the expeditions huge body of work remained unedited and unanalyzed, but many of the taxa were published by other well-known botanists starting with Carl Linnaeus to Antonio José Cavanilles (1745-1804) to Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland and on to others well into the Twentieth Century.For many decades, however, this historic and important collection was all but forgotten and gathering dust at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Madrid until Ellsworth P. Killip (see also) led a resurgence of interest in the material starting in 1929, when he began studying and reorganizing it. In 1932, the Spanish botanist José Cuatrecasas was sent to Columba as Spain's official representative for the bicentenary of Mutis' birth. As part of that celebration, Spain and Colombia jointly published the Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, released in 1937. In Spain, Cuatrecasas had also begun a publication of Mutis' Flora Americana but that endeavor had to be abandoned when Francisco Franco took control of the country during the Civil War and the politically suspect Cuatrecasas was forced to flee into exile in Paris in 1939. Publication of the expedition's enormous body of work in its entirety was started in 1952, after the interference of the Spanish Civil War and World War II ended, and then restarted again in 1982 after an hiatus. By 2002, the project had published twenty-eight volumes, of a projected fifty, but the huge undertaking seems to have stalled once again since then. The Onagraceae, which of course is home to the genus Fuchsia, still awaits publication.
(Illustrations: 1. Portrait of José Celestino Mutis studying a botanical specimen; 2. Map of New Granada in 1815; 3-5. Fuchsias from Drawings of the Royal Botanical Expedition to the New Kingdom of Granada, (1783-1816); 3. F. multiflora drawn and colored by Francisco Escobar Villarroel. An uncolored plate of the same fuchsia is also labelled Vllarroel. A second almost identical uncolored plate of the same fuchsia is notated Almansa (Pedro Advíncula de Alamaza). While the plate labels the plant as F. multiflora, the fuchsia illustrated here, though, appears to be F. hirtella (Kunth 1823). Drawings, tab. 2516; 4. Colored pen and ink details of a flower and seed pod abeled fuchsia. They exactly match the same details on a plate of a complete Fuchsia labelled F. venusta. (Kunth 1923). Drawings, tab. 2515; 5. A colored plate, attributed to or collected by José María Carbonell (?). The caption says only Fuchsia, but a space had been left to eventually fill in a species identification: F. petiolaris (Kunth 1823). Drawings, tab. 2515.)Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of New Spain – Real Expedición Botánica al Virreinato de Nueva España. When Martín de Sessé y Lacasta (see also), a Spanish military physician and botanist, arrived in New Spain in 1780 to take up duties there, he quickly recognized the enormous botanical potential of the vast and mostly unexplored reaches of the territory. Established in Mexico City as part of its colonial élite, he began lobbying for the formation of a botanical expedition on the successful model of others that had been undertaken in Spanish territories, even writing to Casimiro Gómez Ortega, a fellow physician, botanist and first professor at the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid, to enlist his support. Sessé's proposal had two major aims: The first was to classify the natural resources of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the second was to implement new health procedures and education in its colonial territories. The two aims eventually convinced the sympathetic and reform-minded Viceroy of New Spain, Juan Vicente de Güemes, the second Conde de Revillagigedo (1740-1799), as well as Charles III who issued a royal decree authorizing the project and providing the necessary funding. In March 1787, the great botanical adventure known as the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain was officially established. Sessé was to lead a select team of botanists and scientists, both local and those sent by the director of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, on several important explorations from 1787 to 1803.In order to learn from the experiences of earlier botanical expeditions, Sessé took first trips to Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. Returning to Mexico, he was joined by the other botanists and scientists that were to form the Royal Botanical Expedition, including Vicente Cervantes, the first professor of botany in New Spain, José Longinos Martínez from the Cabinet of Natural History (the precursor to the Museum of Natural History), Juan Diego del Castillo, a botanist and pharmacist, and José Maldonado, a Mexican botanist and anatomist. One significant member in particular, José Mariano Mociño (see also), an exceptionally talented Mexican-born botanist and physician who had studied at the University of Mexico, didn't join the team until 1790 but proved himself to be such a capable and exceptional scientist that his work on the Expedition quickly become more of a partnership with Sessé than anything else. Among the members were also a number of painters and illustrators, such as Juan de Dios, Vicente de la Cerda, José Guio, Pedro Oliver and Atanasio Echeverría y Godoy, after whom the genus Echeveria was named.The first two years were spent in the foundation of the Royal Botanical Garden in Mexico City and in the exploration and collection of the areas close by, slowly expanding outwards from there. By 1790, the team was covering larger territories crossing to Michoacán, Sonora, Apatzingan and beyond. At Guadalajara, the group split in two, with Mociño leading one group and Sessé the other, both covering alternate routes to Aguas Calientes. By the time both sides reached their destination in 1792, a royal order had arrived for the Expedition to travel to Nootka Island (part of Vancouver Island in the Pacific Northwest) which area that was then under dispute with Great Britain. The explorers, except for Juan del Castillo who died in 1793 shortly after having finished describing the plants collected on the way to Acapulco, set out for the far north following the California coast. After Nootka, the Expedition's efforts were focused to the south. Again, there were to be two teams, one lead by Mociño exploring Mixteca and the Tabasco coast, and the other by Sessé covering Jalapa and Guaztuco. Reunited in Córdoba, the Expedition travelled on to Veracruz and then returned to Mexico City by way of Tehuantepec and Tabasco. In March 1794, the Expedition's reach was extended to explore in Central America and the Caribbean, specifically Guatemala, Cuba, Santo Domingo and Puerto Rico. The group yet again split into teams. Sessé and Echeverría went to Cuba while Mociño, de la Cerda, del Villar and the others went on to explore Guatemala.Sessé was eventually ordered to conclude the Expedition and return to Spain but it would take him and Mociño two more years to prepare the numerous collections and materials. The pair was finally able to travel to Spain in 1803, where they began to press for the publication of the Expedition. In one of the saddest and most unfortunate outcomes imaginable, political upheavals and the disinterest and apathy of the monarchs who succeeded Charles III would interfere with what should have been a great scientific triumph. While some minor papers resulted, neither Sessé, who died disappointed in 1808, nor Mociño, who died poor and blind in 1820, would ever see the publication of the Expedition. Most of the new species would eventually be described piecemeal by other botanists based on the Expedition's specimens and collections, but not by Sessé or Mociño themselves. It wasn't until many decades later in 1889 that the Plantae novae hispaniaewould even be published, in Mexico, from the original manuscripts prepared by Sessé & Mociño, followed shorty by the Flora mexicana in 1891. These two posthumous publications would also be without the benefit of any of the fine botanical illustrations many of which had been thought lost after Mociño's death. Much of the Expedition's material finally ended up at the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid but important parts are still separated, or even lost. Amazingly, a large number of the Expedition's exceptional illustrations, last known to have been with Mociño when he died in Barcelona en route to Madrid from exile in France and long thought lost, resurfaced in 1980 after being missing for well over one hundred and fifty years, mysteriously preserved in the family library of the Torner family in Barcelona. They were not reunited with the main body of the Expedition's archives at the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid, however, but were instead acquired by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation in 1981and are today located in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.Several fuchsia species are native to Mexico and Central America and were collected during the course of the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain. Because of first publication by botanists other than Sessé & Mociño, and later scientific name changes and reclassification, the currently valid identities of Sessé & Mociño's plants can be a bit hard to disentangle but the most likely candidates are listed after each. Four are in the 1889 edition of Plantae novae hispaniae, published unillustrated from the original manuscripts by Sessé & Mociño: F. racemosa (F. fulgens), F. michoacanensis (F. cylindracena), F. arborea (F. arborescens) and F. uniflora (F. microphylla). The 1891 Flora mexicana also lists four fuchsias. Three, however, are repeats but one is new: F. racemosa (F. fulgens), F. biflora (F. encliandra), F. arborea (F. arborescens), and F. uniflora (F. microphylla). The fuchsias among the beautiful but sometimes only partially colored drawings preserved in the Torner collection are F. acuta (F. microphylla ssp. microphylla), F. alternata (F. thymifolia ssp. thymifolia), F. gracilis (F. microphylla), F. hamellioides (F. paniculata), two almost identical drawings of F. ovata (F. encliandra), and finally F. racemosa (F. fulgens). [N.B. F. parviflora is no longer valid and is now a synonym for F. encliandra.]
See also Mociño, Sessé.
(Illustrations: 1. Messico ouvero Nuova Spagna che Contiene il Nuovo Messico la California con una Parte de' Paesi Adjacenti, Antonio Zatta, 1785; 2. Plate 165 from the Torner illustrations showing the exceptional quality of the details; 3. Another plate from the Torner collection of a plant identified as Heliogenus appendiculatus; 4 & 5. Two details of the fuchsia entries from the 1891 posthumous publication of Flora mexicana; 6. One of the two plates from the Torner collection illustrating F. ovata (F. encliadra).[Royal] Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru – Expedición Botánica al Virreinato del Perú. The Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru was a major effort by the Spanish government to systematically explore the colonial territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru and Chile between 1777 and 1788. The first of three such official expeditions to the Americas (See Royal Botanical Expeditions), it was commissioned by the Spanish king, Charles III, to promote the scientific research of his empire and headed by the botanist Hipólito Ruiz López, with the assistance of the Spanish botanist and pharmacologist José Antonio Pavón y Jiménez and the French botanist Joseph Dombey (until 1784). Two accomplished botanical illustrators, Joseph Bonete and Isidro Gálvez, also accompanied the expedition. Formed at the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid, the expedition's team left Cádiz in 1777 and arrived in Lima by April 1778. It would explore in the vast territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru (in present-day Peru and Chile), studying and collecting many specimens.The journals kept during the expedition are noted for the breadth and detail of their ethnobotany and natural history. Of particular interest in Europe at the time was the pharmacology of New World plants, especially ones such as Cinchona, the source of the invaluable anti-malarial drug, quinine. The Quinología o tratado del árbol de la quina (Madrid, 1792) was quickly translated into Italian in German and English. In addition to detailed descriptions and paintings of the plants and animals, Ruiz made observations on geology and weather, and included cultural information on the Indians and Spanish colonists in the Viceroyalty as well. Unlike the results of the two other American botanical expeditions, the great bulk of which languished unpublished once in Madrid, the Peruvian expedition's work was fairly quickly and jointly published by Ruiz and Pavón as the Florae peruvianae et chilensis prodromus, (Madrid 1794),Systema vegetabilium florae peruvianae et chilensis, (Madrid 1798) and the multi-volume Flora peruviana, et chilensis, sive descriptiones (Madrid 1798-1802).
As with other major exploratory efforts of the period, the expedition to Peru suffered a number of setbacks that ranged from the sinking of the San Pedro de Alcantara in 1784, which was carrying numerous botanical specimens back to Spain, to a disastrous fire in Macora (Peru) which resulted in the loss of additional specimens and equipment in 1785. Additionally, there would be quarrels between Ruiz and Dombey, that resulted in the Frenchman leaving the group in 1784. He was replaced by the botanist Juan José Tafalla Navascués (1775-1811) that same year. In 1788, most of the expedition members returned to Spain, leaving only Tafalla behind in Peru to continue work and send additional material to Madrid. The major collections that had arrived in Cádiz in 1788 were in the most part in good condition, and went to theRoyal Botanical Garden and the Cabinet of Natural History, the precursor of the Museum of Natural History, in Madrid. The discoveries included about one hundred fifty new genera and five hundred new species, many which still bear the names assigned by Ruiz and Pavón. Unfortunately, part of the collection being transported in fifty-three crates containing some eight-hundred illustrations, dried plants, seeds, and other materials was lost when its ship was wrecked on the coast of Portugal.
Among the numerous plants first treated by Ruiz & Pavón are a number of fuchsia species still valid today: F. apetala, F. corymbiflora, F. decussata, F. denticulata, F. ovata and F. simplicicaulis. Other species, such as F. macrostemma (F. magellanica Lam. 1788), F. rosea (F. lycioides Andrews 1800) and F. serratifolia (Ruiz & Pavón 1802) are no longer accepted except as synonyms.
See also Pavón; Ruiz; Ruiz & Pavón; Royal Botanical Expeditions.
(Illustrations: 1. A New Map of South America Drawn from the Latest Discoveries, R. Wilkinson, 1794; 2-4. Fuchsias from Ruiz & Pavón, Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis (1798-1802); 2. F. simplicicaulis and F. apetala. ; 3. F. corymbiflora and F. denticulata; 4. F. serratifolia (F. denticulata) and F. decussata.)
Royal Fuchsia – Common name very rarely applied to F. regia in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart – A color chart, in the format of four small hand-held fans of cards each containing four shades of the same color, originally published in 1966 by the Royal Horticultural Society in the United Kingdom. Subsequently republished by the RHS by subscription, and then republished again in 2007, the current chart contains 896 colors on 224 individual cards and can be ordered on the ➤ RHS website. A mini chart that contains 244 colors is also available on the website. See Color Charts.
Rub out – To remove the new buds or side shoots along a stem or stalk. New shoots will often be rubbed out as part of a training program to create a standard or tree-shaped plant with all growth atop a tall stem clear of leaves.
Rugose – Having a rough or wrinkled surface. Said, for example, of leaves. Similar to bullate, but not quite the same (see also).Ruiz Lopez, Hipólito (1754-1816) – Born in Burgos, Hipólito Ruiz, was a Spanish botanist best known for exploring the flora of Peru and Chile during the Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru undertaken between 1777 to 1788. After early studies in Latin with an uncle, Ruiz was sent to Madrid at the age of fourteen to continue his education in logic, physics, chemistry and pharmacology. He would study botany at the Migas Calientes Botanical Gardens, now the Royal Botanical Garden, under the tutelage of Casimiro Gómez Ortega (1741–1818) and Antonio Palau Verdera (1734–1793). Ruiz had not finished his pharmacology studies when he was named to head the expedition to Peru commissioned by the Spanish king, Charles III. Pharmacologist José Antonio Pavón and the French physician and botanist Joseph Dombey (until 1784), as well as two experienced botanical illustrators, Joseph Bonete and Isidro Gálvez, were selected to assist him. The expedition was a major success and returned to the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid in 1788 with more than ten thousand engravings, 2,254 botanical drawings with descriptions and numerous other materials. Ruiz, along with Pavón, would publish the results in a number of volumes. Ruiz was named a member of the Royal Academy of Medicine in 1794 and continued to publish various works until his death in 1816. See also Pavón; Ruiz & Pavón; Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru.
(Illustration: Portrait of Hipólito Ruiz.)
Ruiz & Pavón – The two Spanish botanists and plant explorers, Hipólito Ruiz López (1754-1816) and José Antonio Pavón y Jiménez (1754-1840) who were sent from Spain at the order of Charles III to collect in colonial Chile, Peru and the other territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru from 1779-1788. The expedition, lead by Ruiz with the assistance of Pavón, a pharmacologist, and the French physician and botanist Joseph Dombrey(1742-1794), was officially known as the Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru (Expedición Botánica al Virreinato del Perú) (see also) and managed to collect over three thousand specimens. It was also accompanied by two accomplished illustrators, Joseph Bonete and Isidro Gálvez,who produced numerous engraving and paintings of the collections today preserved at the Royal Botanical Gardens in Madrid. The expedition's work was jointly published by Ruiz and Pavón in Madrid as the Florae peruvianae et chilensis prodromus, (1794), Systema vegetabilium florae peruvianae et chilensis,(1798) and the multi-volume Flora peruviana, et chilensis, sive descriptiones (1798-1802). A portion of their publication includes other collections by the unlucky and querulous Joseph Dombrey (1742-1794), who had also collected on his own and for the French government. His first efforts in South America were captured in shipment by the British in 1780, who sent it as booty to the British Museum resulting in the notorious Dombrey Affair, and half of his own second attempt was seized by Spanish authorities in 1785, under the excuse that colonial work could not be exported to a foreign country, and his illustrations turned over to Ruiz and Pavón for first publication. Among the numerous plants first treated by Ruiz & Pavón are a number of fuchsia species still valid today: F. apetala, F. corymbiflora, F. deccusata, F. denticulata, F. ovata and F. simplicicaulis. Other species, such as F. macrostemma (F. magellanica Lam. 1788) and F. rosea (F. lycioides Andrews 1800), are no longer accepted except as synonyms. Their author citation in scientific publications is Ruiz & Pav.
(Illustration: Title page of the Flora Peruviana et Chilensis, 1798.)
Rust – See Fuchsia Rust.
Salicifolia – Having leaves like those of a Salix, or willow; willow-leaved. See F. salicifolia in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.Salisbury, Richard (1761-1829) – Salisbury was a colorful and controversial English botanist. The precise details of his early career remain somewhat of a mystery but he had apparently studied at the University of Edinburgh under the botanist John Hope. Actually born as Richard Anthony Markham to a cloth merchant in Leeds, he adopted a new last name in place of his own at some point. According to what he wrote Sir Joseph Banks (see also), it was to please Mrs. Anna Salisbury, an elderly relative of his grandmother, whom he said had settled a large sum of money on him for his schooling. However, Salisbury did have a history of questionable behavior and finances: His wife left him soon after the birth of their only daughter when she found out he had lied to her on their engagement. He was actually in severe debt and would questionably declare bankruptcy after he fell out with her family over her dowry. Whatever the personal truths he was obscuring, his relations with fellow botanists hardy seem much better. He was considered hard to get along with and his strong opposition to the Linnean System meant that many of his peers ignored his work. He had an especially vehement falling out with his former close friend, Sir James Edward Smith, the founder of the Linnean Society, over the subject in 1802. Amusingly, the falling out may actually have started over Salisbury's secret attempts to take the straight-laced Smith's 16-year-old protégé, William Drake, to a London prostitute to make him more "manly, &c, &c" and escalated professionally from there.His personal faults and professional feuds aside, Salisbury was actually an accomplished and meticulous botanist who still managed to make important contributions to science. Along with a number of articles and four works published in his own name, he was also the hidden author of the extensive botanical revisions in On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae published in the name of a friend, Joseph Knight, in 1807. Unfortunately, Salisbury was accused of preempting and plagiarizing much from Robert Brown, with whom he was also at odds, after a reading Brown gave at the Linnean Society and before Brown could publish his work in a paper. Salisbury was roundly denounced and ostracized. Samuel Goodenough, the bishop of Carlisle and an amateur botanist himself, wrote, "How shocked was I to see Salisbury's surreptitious anticipation of Brown's paper on New Holland plants, under the name and disguise of Mr. Hibbert's gardener!"
Much earlier, in his Icones stirpium rariorum of 1787, Salisbury described and renamed Aiton's F. coccinea as F. elegans reasoning that its bright red color wasn't a sufficiently distinctive trait for a fuchsia to warrant that specific epithet. Probably aware of Domenico Vandelli's (see also) work on Portuguese and Brazilian plants, Salisbury also stated that it had been introduced by him. This was, of course, in opposition to the confused report by Aiton (see also) that this Brazilian plant had been brought to Kew from Chile by a certain Captain Firth (see also). In Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium, the 1796 catalogue and description of plants growing in the garden he established at his father's estate at Chapel Allerton near Leeds, Salisbury published F. coccinea again but this time as F. pendula. By 1802, Salibury's finances had apparently regularized enough so that he was able to purchase Rigdeway House at Mill Hill where he established another garden. Later he moved to London where he was reported to have kept several hundred rare plants in a tiny garden only about thirty square feet in size. Today his papers are at the British Museum and his herbarium at Kew.
(Illustrations: 1. Leucadendrum grandiflorum, a member of the "Proteeae," in Salibury's Paradisus Londinensis, illus. by William Hooker; 2. Entry for F. pendula (F. coccinea) in Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium, 1796.)
Sanctae-rosae – From the Department of Santa Rosa, Bolivia. See F. sanctae-rosae in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Sanctos-limae – Named in honor of the Brazilian botanist, Santos Lima. F. sanctos-limae (Brade 1957) is a synonym of F. glazioviana (Taub. 1892) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Sanmartina – From the Department of San Martín, Peru. See F. sanmartina in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Scabriuscula – Having smallish, slightly rough leaves. See F. scabriuscula in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Scandens – Climbing or sprawling. F. scandens (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. decussata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Scarlet Fuchsia – Common name occasionally applied to F. coccinea in ➤ Section Quelusia. Graptophyllum excelsum is also sometimes referred to as "Scarlet Fuchsia" in its native Australia (see ➤ Section Fuchsia).Scherff, Fritz de (1847-1896) – Fritz de Scherff was a well-connected nobleman from Luxemburg who accompanied Édouard André (see also) on part of his exploratory trip to South America in 1875-1876. The twenty-eight year old de Scherff had come along on the expedition not as a botanist or naturalist but simply as a tourist. The natural rigors of the trip were apparently not to his expectations and he amicably parted company from the group with a warm handshake, as André reports, to return to Quito. He would not be seen again by André until eighteen months later in André's salon in Paris. Nonetheless, André did still describe F. scherffiana in his honor in 1888. Though perhaps not without more than a passing nod to his father, the important Luxemburg politician and minister, Paul de Scherff. The original collection of this relatively rare species was likely made for André in southern Ecuador by the Belgian Hugo Poortman a couple of months after André returned to Europe in September 1876. See F. scherffiana in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Portrait of Fritz de Scherff posed as an explorer in exotic costume. Engraving by E. Ronjat in Charton, Édouard. Le tour du monde - nouveau journal des voyages - livraisons n°1169,1170,1171,1172 et 1173 - L'Amérique équinoxiale par Ed. André,voyageur chargé d'une mission du gouvernement français (1875-1876).
Scherffiana – Named in honor of Fritz de Scherf (1847-1896). See: Scherf; F. scherffiana in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Schnabel, Clement (1906-1993) - American hybridizer from San Francisco, California.
Among his plants are 'Portola' (1947), 'American Festival,' 'Bo Peep' (1948), 'Debutante,' 'Neon,' 'Parkside' (1949), 'Bernadette,' 'Cameo,' 'City of Portland' (1950), 'Picotee,' 'Rose Mauve,' 'Silvia,' 'Stella Marina' (1951), 'Dorothy Louise,' 'Emma O'Neill,' 'Gaiety,' 'Mel Newfield,' 'Snow Flurry,' 'Violetta' (1952), 'Dainty Damosel,' 'Cavalier,' 'Vagabond' (1953), 'Avalanche,' 'King's ransom,' 'Sleigh Bells,' (1954), 'Burgundian,' 'Pink Parfait,' 'Plum Glory,' 'Rose Chiffon,' (1955), City of Richmond,' 'Stop Lite' (1956), 'Cara Mia,' 'Granada' 'Impudence' (1957), 'Major Barbara,' 'Pearl Lustre,' (1958), 'Hazel Marsh,' 'Pompadour,' 'Shalimar,' 'Ting-a-Ling' (1959), Jinx' (1960), 'Niagara,' 'The Franciscan,' 'Tutti Fruiti' (1961), 'Embarcadero,' 'Valencia,' 'Vanity Fair' (1962), 'Alaska,' 'John Marsh,' 'Mandarin,' 'Tahiti' (1963).
Scientific Nomenclature – See Nomenclature.Schufia – Fuchsia sect. Schufia. Judging from the way botanists usually devise new names, one would think that Section Schufia, one of the twelve into which the genus Fuchsia is divided, was named to honor a famous and eminent botanist by the name of Schufe. Or maybe it was intended as a nod to an intrepid plant collector, some noble and adventurous Freiherr von Schuf, who braved poisonous three-eyed snakes and pesky banditos in the jungles of Central America to bring it home? The director of a botanical garden? A German garden hoe, the Schuffel? Guess again. Sometimes taxonomy gets complicated. Other times, it gets a giggle. A polite one, of course, but a giggle none-the-less. Possibly, later, even a few tears as well. Occasionally it gets all three.In 1826 the English botanist and editor of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, John Sims (1749-1831), described an interesting new fuchsia discovered in Guatemala as F. arborescens because it was so unusually large it seemed to him like a tree. The French-Alsatian botanist Édouard Spach (1801-1879), thinking that Fuchsia arborescens's lilac-like panicles made it quite unlikely to be so closely related to Fuchsia, created a new monospecific genus, Schufia in 1835, and removed arborescens there. The Austrian botanist, Stephan Endlicher (1804-1849), clearly saw the connection, though, and put it right back into Fuchsia in 1840. After that, Fuchsia arborescens had a variety of formal adventures until 1943 when Phillip Munz (1892-1974) decided to just be done with it all and reorganized the whole mess the genus had become.Unbeknownst to them all, the first Fuchsia arborescens had already been collected as Fuchsia arborea by the celebrated botanists José Mariano Mociño and Martín de Sessé y Lacosta during the legendary Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain that took place between 1787 and 1803. They had even planted a specimen in the Royal Botanical Garden in Mexico City. Unfortunately, the final results of that great botanizing expedition languished in Spain, unpublished and mostly forgotten because of politics and war and the regal apathy of kings, until it was too late. Even the spectacular illustration of Fuchsia arborea done in the field would become lost until a significant portion of the Expedition's paintings, missing for over a century and a half, unexpectedly turned up again in 1980, preserved in a private family library in Barcelona.Spach himself was to be honored in Spachia fulgens by the Swedish botanist Nils Lilja(1808-1870) in 1840. Spachia quickly became Ellobium by the very same Lilja in 1841. But then the French botanist, Élie-Abel Carrière (1818-1896) decided that it, too, was really a Fuchsia and so, voilà, it became Fuchsia fulgens in 1881. However, Fuchsia fulgens had again first been collected by Sessé & Mociño, but this time validly published in Switzerland by Auguste-Pyrame de Candolle in 1828. He had based his diagnosis on the expedition's illustrations temporarily lent to him by a now-decrepit Mociño while he was in French exile from 1812-1820, and before Mociño died, impoverished and blind, of a cerebral hemorrhage probably brought on by heartbreak and disappointment, after which most of the illustrations disappeared until recently.So, who's on third? Maybe this mysterious Schufe? No, not really. No one is, in fact. Uncharacteristically for a botanist, Spach seemed quite at a loss for new names at precisely the very moment he needed to create one; Schufia is simply a bad anagram of Fuchsia. The odd jumble was revived for Fuchsia sect. Schufia, which includes only two species Fuchsia arborescens and Fuchsia paniculata (Lindley 1856).
Section – A sub-division of a genus, a section is a grouping of species sharing similar characteristics. Botanists have divided Fuchsia into twelve sections: Ellobium, Encliandra, Fuchsia (which contains the type species for the genus), Hemleyella, Jimenezia, Kierslegeria, Pachyrizza, Procumbentes, Quelusia, Schufia, Skinnera and Verrucosa. See also ➤ Fuchsia Species.
Seeds – Most garden fuchsias are complex hybrids and won't come true from seed. They're easy propagated from cuttings, though, so there's little point to seed-grown plants outside of curiosity or hybridizing. The resulting seedlings usually wouldn't produce much of anything interesting or desirable, anyway, and even intentional hybridizers might cull through hundreds of targeted crosses before getting the one plant with characteristics worth keeping. The number of seeds in fuchsia berries is variable. Depending on the species or cultivar, a berry can contain anywhere from a couple of dozen to hundreds.
Self-colored – Fuchsia blossoms in which both the sepals and corolla are of the same or nearly the same color.
Seleriana – F. seleriana (Loes. 1913) is an unresolved name.Semi-double – Cultivated fuchsias with five to eight petals to the blossom. In nature, fuchsias have four petals. Some have none. See also, Single, Double.
Semi-ripe Cutting – Cuttings taken from plants in the summer when the stems have started to become ripe and the plant is in flower. These are often taken from the mother plant with a "heel" attached.
Semi-trailer – A fuchsia with an intermediate habit between lax, hanging growth good for growing in baskets and upright growth for pots or in the ground. With a little training, semi-trailers will often be adaptable to either format.
Semperflorens – Always flowering, F. × semperflorens (Rozain 1888) is an unresolved name or synoymn.
Sepal – The outermost part of the flower. Along with the tube, or hypanthium, it forms the calyx.
Serrae – Referring or belonging to the serras, or mountain ranges. Specifically in Fuchsia regia subsp. serrae, to the steep coastal escarpments of the Serra do Mar and Serra Geral ranges in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo and southern Rio de Janeiro States, to which it is native. (In other references, the genitive might possibly be used to honor someone with the last name of Serra but that is not the case with Fuchsia.) While etymologically related, serra is also the word for a saw in both Latin and Portuguese but is not to be confused with the botanical term serrata, serrate or saw-like, as said of leaves having a margin of forward pointing teeth or a notched or saw-like edge. See F. regia subsp. serrae in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Serratifolia – Having margins on the leaves resembling the teeth of a saw. F. serratifolia (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) is a synonym of F. denticulata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Sessilifolia – Having unstalked, petioled leaves. See F. sessilifolia in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Shaping – Training a plant, especially to a particular form or specimen such as a standard or pyramid, by selectively pinching or rubbing out shoots or forcing a particular direction of growth. Ordinary plants in pots and baskets are also shaped to increase their flowering and obtain a more symmetrical form. The practice might also be termed training.
Ships – See USS Fuchsia; M919 Fuchsia.
Shrub – A woody plant smaller than a tree tree and which usually has several stems growing from the same base; a bush.
Siphonantha – With tubed flowers. F. siphonantha (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. denticulata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Silver Dale Nurseries National Collection of Fuchsia Species & Cultivars – See National Collections (UK).
Simplicicaulis – Having an unbranched stem. See F. simplicicaulis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Single – Any fuchsias with four petals to the blossom. In nature, most fuchsias have just four petals (some have none) but many crosses have developed with multiplied petals. (See also, Double, Semi-double.)
Skelton, Robin (1925-1997) – See Popping Fuchsias.
Skinner, Rev. Richard (1729?-1795) – Skinner, an English botanist, graduated from Oxford in 1753 and was the rector of Bassingham in Lincolnshire from 1774. He was well known in the botanical circles of his time and was a friend of Forster & Forster (see also), who named Skinnera excorticata for him in 1776, as well as of Joseph Banks (see also). Unfortunately for the honor, Skinnera excorticata, a plant actually already collected in New Zealand by Banks & Solander in 1769 but never validly published, was moved to Fuchsia when Carl Linnaeus the Younger recognized the connection in 1781. The Swiss botanist, Augustin Paramus de Candolle (1778-1841), however, revived Skinnera as the name of one of the two sections into which he divided the genus Fuchsia in 1828. The name is sometimes seen incorrectly rendered as Skinneria. See ➤ Section Skinnera.
Skinnera – Named in honor of the Reverend Richard Skinner (1729?-1795). See: Skinner; ➤ Section Skinnera.
Skutchiana – Named in honor of Alexander F. Skutch (1904-2004), an American botanist, ornithologist and naturalist and philosopher, noted for his numerous publications and books on Central America, especially on its birds. He had lived in Guatemala since he purchased a farm there in 1941 and collected plants for sale to Museums. An avowed naturalist and vegetarian who believed in "treading lightly on the Mother Earth", Skutch's farm remained without running water until 1990. F. skutchiana (Munz 1943) is an unresolved name or synonym.Sloane, Sir Hans (1660-1753) – Sloane was a noted British physician, botanist and collector of curiosities. He had studied medicine in London and then France, where he was a pupil and eventual friend of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708), the professor of botany at the Jardin du Roi in Paris (now the Jardin des Plantes). Tournefort had also been Charles Plumier's teacher. In 1687, Sloane accompanied the new governor of Jamaica, the 2nd Duke of Albermarle, to the island as his personal physician. The Duke died of drink shortly after his arrival but Sloane stayed to collect plants in Jamaica and other Caribbean islands until 1689. His many discoveries were published in 1696 after he had returned to England. Much later, Sloane also released an important journal of his Caribbean experiences. Sloane and Plumier never had the chance to meet but they knew and admired each other's work; Plumier even dubbed a new genus Sloanea. Widely celebrated in his time, Sloane succeeded Sir Isaac Newton as president of the Royal Society and was the first physician to be honored with an hereditary title (baronet in 1716). He donated the grounds for the Chelsea Physic Garden, helped found London's Foundling Hospital, and his extensive collections and library formed the core of the new British Museum in 1759. He's also noted for having invented chocolate milk after he found the cocoa and water mixture to which he was introduced in Jamaica unpalatable. Volume 8 of his herbarium, now in the Natural History Museum, preserves the first known actual fuchsia specimen. It was collected for him by George Handisyd in the Tierra del Fuego just before July 1690 (ff. 128, 105.6, 148 3). The accompanying note in Sloane's own hand reads, "This Mr. Handisyd gathered in the streights of Magellan. It bears a figg as he told me which was eatable on it fed blackbirds it grew to the heighth of a small tree, it had a green bark & brittle wood." Unfortunately, this F. magellanica specimen remained unpublished. Unfortunately, as well, it's also in the only volume of Sloane's herbarium still not published in facsimile on the Natural History Museum's website. See also Handisyd.
Smith, Lyman (1904-1997) – Smith was an American botanist who concentrated on the taxonomy of the flowering plants of South America, in particular the Bromeliaceae, Begoniaceae and Velloziaceae families. He was a curator in the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Botany from 1947 until his retirement in 1974. However, he remained active at the United States National Herbarium as a curator emeritus almost until his death. F. smithii (Munz 1943) is now synonymous with F. petiolaris. See F. petriolaris in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Smith, Matllda (1854–1926) – A leading British botanical illustrator whose work appeared in Curtis's Botanical Magazine. For well over forty years, between 1878 and 1923, Smith produced over 2,300 plates for the magazine and other publications. She also become the first official botanical artist of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, where she made reproductions for the library. In 1921 she became an Associate of the Linnean Society (1921), only the second woman to be appointed to that level of its membership. The plant genera, Smithiantha and Smithiella, were named in her honor. Among her drawings are, of course, several fuchsias.
(Illustration: Botanical illustration of F. ampliata by Matilda Smith (1854–1926) in Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Vol. III (Series 3, Vol. 4), London, 1889, plate 6839.)
Smithii – Named in honor of Lyman B. Smith (1904-1997). F. smithii (Munz 1943) is now synonymous with F. petiolaris. See: Smith; F. petriolaris in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Societies – See ➤ Fuchsia Societies for a full list.
Soft Cuttings – Cuttings taken from new shoots. If the cutting material is long enough, it can be further divided to produce a tip cutting, an internodal cutting, a split internodal cutting and a basal cutting.
Spach, Édouard (1801-1879) – French-Alsatian botanist. Spachia fulgens (Lilja 1840) is synonymous with F. fulgens (De Candolle 1828, Carrière 1881), as is another invalid synonym Ellobium fulgens (Lilja 1841). See F. fulgens in ➤ Section Ellobium; and also see Ellobium, Fulgens.
Spachia – Named in honor of the French-Alsatian botanist, Édouard Spach (1801-1879). Spachia fulgens (Lilja 1840) is synonymous with F. fulgens (De Candolle 1828, Carrière 1881), as is another invalid synonym Ellobium fulgens (Lilja 1841). See: Spach; F. fulgens in ➤ Section Ellobium; Ellobium; and Fulgens.Species – A group of consistently similar individuals with common characteristics capable of inter-breeding. Species form one of the main taxonomic units of botany. They are directly under a genus and, since Linnaeus, are identified by a Latin binomial. For example, Fuchsia magellanica, is a species. According Article 23.1 of the current ➤ International Code of Nomenclature (Melbourne Code, 2011), "The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by a single specific epithet in the form of an adjective, a noun in the genitive, or a word in apposition, or several words, but not a phrase name of one or more descriptive nouns and associated adjectives in the ablative (see Art. 23.6(a)), nor any of certain other irregularly formed designations (see Art. 23.6(b–d)".
(Illustration: F. magellanica growing along the shore of Lake Nahuel Huapi in the Patagonian Lake District, near the dry northern end of its range on the Argentinian side of the Andes.)
Speciosa – Showy, spectacular. F. speciosa Hort. (ex Bailey 1900) is a synonym of F. hybrida Hort. (ex Siebert & Voss 1894), which is itself an unresolved name.
Spectabilis – Spectacular. F. spectabilis (Hook.1848) and F. spectabilis var. pubens (I.M.Johnst. 1925) are both synonyms of F. macrostigma (Benth. 1844) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Spelling – See Fuchsias in all the Languages of the World.
Spinosa – Having spines. F. spinosa (C.Presl. 1831) and F. rosea var. spinosa (C.Presl) Reiche 1897) are both synonyms of F. lycioides (Andrews 1800) in ➤ Section Kierschlegeria.
Splendens – Splendid. See F. splendens in ➤ Section Ellobium.
Sport – A shoot spontaneously appearing on a plant which is distinctive in characteristics such as growth habit, leaf color, variegation or flower color from the rest of the plant. Sports will not come true from seed so must be propagated vegetatively to maintain any desirable traits. Some sports are unstable and propagated plants will often show reversions that must be removed.
Stamen – The stamen (plural stamens, or stamina in Latin) is the pollen producing reproductive organ of a flower. Stamens usually consist of a stalk called the filament at the end of which is a sac-like structures called an anther where the pollen is produced. Fuchsias typically have eight stamens which often extend beyond the flower rim.
Staminate Flowers – Male flowers in which the female reproductive parts are absent or reduced to sterility. See also Breeding Systems.Standard – A fuchsia that has been trained into a "tree" shape with a head of leaves and flowers at the top of a section of clear stem of varying height meant to mimic a trunk. While side shots are usually rubbed out along the stem, the leaves are left on until the head has been fully developed by pinching. This is a particularly effective way of training and displaying many trailing cultivars as specimens or for places where hanging baskets can't easily be suspended.
Standishii – F. × standishii (Paxton 1844) is an unresolved name or synonym.
Steinbachii – Named in honor of José Steinbach (Joseph Steinbach Kemmerich, 1875-1930), a German explorer and collector, who settled permanently in Bolivia in 1904. His many plant and animal collections were sold to museums and universities around the world and some thirty species came to be named in his honor. Perhaps twenty-nine; F. steinbachii (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is now a synonym of F. juntasensis (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Stevens, Col. John (1749-1838) – Stevens was a American politician, lawyer, engineer and inventor who grew the first fuchsia recorded in the United States about 1797 at Villa Stevens at Castle Point in New Jersey. His large estate included most of the modern city of Hoboken just across the Hudson River from lower Manhattan. It's not known exactly from where he obtained his fuchsia but the prominent Stevens family had extensive interests in mercantile shipping. Stevens, an avid gardener, frequently had his agents in England ship him interesting plants. The actual species isn't noted in his records but it's likely to have been either F. coccinea or F. magellanica. He also engaged in an lively exchange of rare plants, including the fuchsia, with a number of prominent collectors such as his brother-in-law, Robert Livingston (1746-1813), one of the drafters of the Declaration of Independence and first Chancellor of New York, among his many other accomplishments, and Dr. David Hosack, founder of the Elgin Botanic Garden in 1801, the first in the United States. Today the core of the estate lies buried under the Stevens Institute of Technology, founded in 1870 by a bequest of Col. Stevens' son, Edwin, at his death in 1868.
(Illustration: Engraving of the Villa Stevens at Hoboken. William Russell Birch in The Country Seats of the United States of North America, 1808.)
Steyermark, Julian A. (1909-1988) – Venezuelan-born American botanist. Steyermark's career included the Field Museum of Chicago, the Jardín Botánico de Caracas of the Universidad Central of Venezuela and, finally, the Botanical Gardens in St. Louis, from 1984 until his death. His major publications were Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Flora of Guatemala and Flora of Missouri. He was a prolific collector and the over 130,000 plants collected in twenty-six countries even earned him a mention in the Guinness Book of World Records. In all, Steyermark made initial descriptions of 2,392 taxa, including one family, 38 genera, and 1,864 species. The genus Steyermarkia was named for him. See F. steyermarkii in ➤ Section Fuchsia, a new species which was he collected and which was described in his honor.
Steyermarkii – Named in honor of the distinguished Venezuelan-American botanist, Julian A. Steyermark (1909-1988). See: Steyermarck; F. steyermarkii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Stigma – The part of the flower at the end of the pistil to which the pollen grains adhere.
Stipules – Small leaf-like growths occurring in pairs at the base of a leaf or leaf stalk.
Stolon – A shoot that grows along the ground producing roots and new branches from its nodes; a runner. See Rhizome, Tuber.
Stoloniferous – Producing stolons or suckers.
Stopping – Also called pinching. The removal of the growing tip of a branch. Stopping or pinching will encourage side buds to break from the leaf axils and result in a bushier, more floriferous plant. A plant will often be stopped or pinched several times before it's left to flower for the season.
Storkii – Named in honor of the American botanist, Harvey E. Stork (1890 -1956). Stork joined the faculty of Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota as a professor of botany in 1920 and remained there until retirement in 1955. His summers, however, were spent on plant hunting expeditions primarily to South America and his collections are represented in a number of American institutions. Interestingly, Stork spent 1927 and again during 1929-1931 as a seasonal ranger naturalist at Yellowstone Park documenting and photographing plants and animals in the Park before later returning to his usual habit of trips to South America. F.storkii (Munz 1943) is a synonym of F.mathewsii (J.F.Macbr. 1940) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Striking – Rooting cuttings by inserting them into a suitable rooting medium.
Striolata – Striolated or grooved. F. striolata (Lundell 1940) is an unresolved name or synonym.Stubbs, Annabelle (1913-2003) – American nursery owner, hybridizer and tireless fuchsia promoter from California. Relocating several times along the California coast with her husband, Bud, Annabelle Stubbs seems to have opened a fuchsia nursery or fuchsia garden or local fuchsia society where ever they landed. First came the Stubbs Fuchsia Nursery at Leucadia in southern California. This was followed by Annabelle's Fuchsia Gardens at Fort Bragg on the northern California coast in the early 1970s, where she also helped found the local branch of the American Fuchsia Society. Returning to Oceanside in southern California because of the ill health of her sister, she opened Fire Mountain Fuchsias at her home. While there, she was also one of the forces behind the beautiful, but unfortunately now-defunct, fuchsia garden created in a seemingly inhospitable, arid canyon at the San Diego Wild Animal Park near Escondido. Next came a move to a greenhouse in Eureka, back again on the northern coast, before both Stubbs finally landed at Vista, once more in southern California, towards the end of their lives.
Through all the wanderings, Annabelle Stubbs also crossed fuchsias. Inspired by fellow California hybridizer, Roy Walker, she managed the amazing feat of releasing seventy-three new hybrids between 1970 and 1997. With a sure and artistic eye in the selection of parents, her plants were especially noted for their well-formed corollas and pastel shades. Along with 'Blue Pinwheel,' her first release in 1970, are such note-worthies as 'Strawberry Fizz' (1970), 'Taffeta Bow' (1972), 'Mendocino Rose' (1976), 'Applause' (1978), 'Fire Mountain' (1980), 'Blue Halo' (1981), 'Malibu Mist' (1985), San Pasqual' (1986), 'Oriental Flame' (1987), 'Pink Parasol' (1989) and 'Frank Sanford' (1992), with 'Jenessa' being her final introduction in 1997. 'Pink Marshmallow,' registered in 1971 and one of her earliest crosses, has easily and justifiably gone on to become one of the most popular fuchsias in the world.
(Illustration: 'Pink Marshmallow', Annabelle Stubbs, 1971, AFS No. 996)
Style – The stalk of the female parts of the flower.
Subfamily – A taxonomic rank in botany just below a family but above a tribe or genus. See Onagraceae.
Subshrub – A low-growing shrub or perennial with a woody base.
Subspecies – Naturally occurring populations within a species' geographic distribution sharing some characteristics that are distinctive enough to warrant formal designation but not so much so that they should form a separate species. Subspecies are considered capable of easily hybridizing but rarely do because of isolation or other factors. Some species such as F. magellanica are variable and mixed throughout their range and the differing individuals can't truly be considered subspecies. The standard abbreviation is subsp. but the alternative ssp. is occasionally used as well.
Summa – From the top, the uppermost or highest point or place, the summit. See F. summa in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Surian, Joseph Donat (1649-1691) – French physician and apothecary from Marseille who was sent by Michel Bégon (see also) to botanize in the West Indies in 1689 at the behest of Louis XIV's government. Charles Plumier (see also) was engaged to accompany Surian on the expedition through Martinique and St-Domingue (Haiti) which lasted until the beginning of 1690. Surian collected many specimens which were then drawn and noted by Plumier. His collections are today housed in ten bound volumes at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris, and are well represented within the Jussieu Herbarium located there as well. Unfortunately, many of Surian's collections are poorly preserved and would be useless for study were it not for Plumier's meticulous drawings to aid in identification. Despite what was a contentious relationship on the notouriously curmudgeonly Surian's part that even cut the trip short, Plumier named the genus Suriana after him. Plumier would return to the Caribbean on two more expeditions as a Royal Botanist but Surian met his demise shortly back in Marseille, apparently through his own stupidity, along with his wife, two children and a maid, accidentally poisoned by a purgative made from herbs that he had collected. Insignium et rariorum plantarum semina ex insulis americanis recenter allata offeruntur et communicantur a Josepho Donato de Surian was published posthumously as an undated plant list, perhaps in 1712, a year sometimes incorrectly give for his death.
Swingtime – A large-flowered trailing cultivar produced by Horace Tiret in California in 1950. With it beautiful double red-and-white flowers and easy cultivation, the floriferous Swingtime could easily take the designation of the world's most popular and emblematic fuchsia. In fact, you would be hard-pressed to find a nursery without a basket or two especially in the springtime.
Sylvatica – From the forest; of the forest. See F. sylvatica in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Sympatric – Occurring in the same or overlapping areas but not usually interbreeding. This might be due to differences in pollinators or flowering periods.
Synonym – A duplicate taxonomic name that has been rejected or replaced and is now invalid. Unlike the general definition of the word, a taxonomic synonym in botany is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym and cannot exist in isolation. Synonyms can be created when the same taxon is independently described or named more than once. They may also be created whenever an existing taxon is changed. For example, when a species is moved to a different genus or two genera are joined to become one. Among the many synonyms for the genus Fuchsia are Brebissonia, Ellobium, Encliandra, Kierschlegeria, Kirschlegera, Lyciopsis, Myrinia, Nahusia, Quelusia, Quiliusa, Schufia, Skinnera, Spachia, Thilcum and Tilco. See The Plant List.
Syringiflora – Having flowers resembling this of Syringa, or the lilac. F. syringiflora (Carrière 1873) is a synonym of F. arborescens (Sims 1826) in ➤ Section Schufia.
Systemics – Insecticides or fungicides that are absorbed into a plant through watering the roots or spraying the leaves. Since systemics make the plant itself poisonous to insects or fungus, care should be taken not to eat berries, flowers or leaves from plants that have been treated in this way.
- T - ZTacanensis – From Tacaná, in the San Marcos department of Guatemala. Tacaná Volcano lies here, part of the Central American Core volcanic chain, and the area is noted for the richness of its biodiversity, particularly in the high mountain ecosystems. However, F. tacanensis (Lundell 1940) is an unresolved name or synonym.
Tachira – Referring to the state of Táchira, located in north-western Venezuela on its border with Colombia. F. x tachira appears to be invalid as a formally published taxon and apparently refers to a naturally occurring hybrid between F. gehrigeri x F. venusta, both found in the state. With the addition of F. nigricans and F. verrucosa, four species are sympatric to the Venezuelan Andes and all possible putative hybrid combinations between these species, excepting F. verrcuosa, have been observed there by botanists. These hybrids are, however, usually not assigned names.
(Illustration: F. venusta (Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth 1823) drawn by Louis van Houtte in Flore des serres et des jardin de l’Europe, Vol. 5, p. 538 (1849)Tacsoniiflora – Having flowers resembling Tacsonia, once a distinct genus but now a synonym of Passiflora, the passionflower. Tacsonia is also the name of a supersection or subgenus within Passiflora. The noted resemblence between these passionflowers and fuchsias seems to have gone in both directions. Passiflora fuchsiiflora, or the fuchsia-flowered passionflower, was described by British botanist William Hemsley in 1898. Interestingly Hemsley (1843-1924) was the Keeper of the Herbarium and Library at Kew Gardens and published on "The Apetalous Fuchsias of South America" in the Journal of Botany (14:69-70) in 1875. He himself would be honored with F. hemsleyana, though currently a synonym of F. microphylla subsp. hemsleyana (Woodson & Seibert, Breedlove 1937). Hemsley's name, however, is still preserved in Fuchsia sect. Hemsleyella. Despite the colorful floral cross connections, F. tacsoniiflora (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is now also a synonym of F. denticulata (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Compare left, F. denticulata Ruiz & Pav. [as F. serratifolia Ruiz & Pav.] from Edwards’s Botanical Register, vol. 31: t. 41 (1845) and, right, Passiflora mollisima (Kunth) L.H. Bailey as Tacsonia mollissima Kunth from Edwards’s Botanical Register, vol. 32: t. 11 (1846). Both drawings are by Sarah Drake (1803-1857), one of the most accomplished botanical illustrators of her time.)
Tamaensis – From Tama-Tama in Venezuela. F. verrucosa var. tamaensis (Steyerm. 1952) is a synonym of F. verrucosa (Hartw. ex Benth. 1845) in ➤ Section Verrucosa.
Taxa – See Taxon.
Taxon – Any group of plants with the same name. The term's correct Latin plural is taxa. The plural taxons, however, is also often used in English, especially in non-scientific writings or informal contexts.
Taxonomy – The science of classifying plant and animals into an ordered system of groups and categories to indicate natural relationships.
Tenella – Small, delicate, tender. Fuchsia tenella (Lindl.) G.Don 1830) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Terete – Having a smooth circular cross-section; cylindrical. When referring to a plant stem it usually, but not necessarily, might imply a tapering form.
Ternate – Said of leaves when arranged in groups or whorls of three around the stem. Many fuchsias will often have stems with opposite pairs of leaves along with ones with ternately arranged leaves. Cuttings taken from the ternate stems are desirable because they will result in bushier plants more quickly.
Tetradactyla – Having four fingers or digits. F. tetradactyla (Lindl. 1846) is an unresolved name or synonym. See also F. encliandra subsp. tetradactyla in ➤ Section Encliandra.
Tetragonous – Having four sides as in a tetragon; quadrilateral.Thilco – Also tilco or tilko. The name by which F. magellanica was recorded by the astronomer and cartographer Louis Feuillée (another Minim monk and student of Charles Plumier) in his Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (Paris, 1714). Feuillée had observed the plant in Chile on his exploratory trip through Argentina, Chile and Peru from 1707-1711. Thilco is linguistic variation of its native Mapuche name of chilco, apparently used by the related Mapuche (Mapudungun)-speaking Picunche then living in Chile's Central Valley but now extinct. F. magellanica would be first formally described as a Fuchsia when Lamarck officially published the species in 1788. Feuillée was oddly inaccurate in stating that thilco had five-petalled flowers and illustrated ten stamens coming out of them instead of eight. It was this mistake that would lead Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) to publish thilco not as a Fuchsia but as Thilcum tinctorium in 1810.
The name is also spelled thilko, tilco and tilko. It should be noted that the "th" phoneme in thilco is meant to represent the consonant in the Mapudungun languages called a "voiceless retroflex stop" ( ʈ ) and not the "voiceless dental stop" ( t̪ ) of English, as is usually assumed by English speakers. This means that thilco is more properly pronounced to match the English word "time" (ʈaɪm), not "thin" (t̪ʰɪn). In fact, a good comparison is the pronunciation of the herb, thyme. Thilco, meaning F. magellanica, should also not be mistaken for the confusingly named and apparently natural hybrid, F. magellanica x F. lycioides 'Thilco'.
See also Chilco, Feuillée, Magellanica, Molin, Thilcum tinctorium.
(Illustration: Thilco is on the left of part of the page in Feuillée's Journal. A verbena appears to the right.)Thilcum tinctorium – The Chilean Jesuit naturalist and scientist, Juan Ignacio Molina (Italian: Giovanni Ignazio Molina; b. Chile 1740, d. Italy 1829), writing in the second enlarged edition of his Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili (1782) in 1810, placed the Chilean native F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788), known to him as thilco, into a new genus that he dubbed Thilcum tinctorium. Thilco (also tilco) was from the language of the Picunche, a Mapuche (Mapudungun)-speaking native people then living in Chile's Central Valley, and tinctorium referred to the fact that the bark and leaves of thilco, as Molina had already observed in the 1782 edition, were used to produce a black dye. Molina wrote much about his beloved native country during his many years of exile in Italy. However, he and his fellow Jesuits were expelled from Chile in 1768, sadly forever denying him a return. In establishing Thilcum tinctorium, Molina seems to have been in Italian exile too long to fully recollect thilco on his own and was unfortunately misled by inaccuracies in Louis Feuillée's report of it in the Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques, et botaniques (Paris, 1714). Feuillée wrongly states that its flowers are five-petalled and depicts ten stamens coming out of each flower. Molina explicitly cites Feuillée's authority for creating the new genus reasoning that, while other authors report that the genus Fuchsia has four-petalled flowers and eight stamens, Feuillée indicates five for thilco: Thilco could therefore not be a Fuchsia. Molina doesn't seem to be aware that Lamarck had already published F. magellanica in 1788 but is aware of its synonym, F. macrostemma (Ruiz & Pavon 1802), and other fuchsias published under the name Coccinea. Thilcum tinctorium is now synonymous with F. magellanica (Lamarck 1788).
(Illustration: Entry page of Thilco tinctorium in the second edition (1810) of Juan Ignacio Molina's Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili.)Thiéry de Ménonville, Nicholas-Joseph (1739-1780) – French botanist sent to Mexico in 1776 on a clandestine mission to acquire the cochineal scale insect highly valued for the bright crimson-red carmine dye extracted from their dried powdered bodies. He was successful and attempted to naturalize the insect, as well as the prickly pear cactus called nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) on which it fed, in the French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola. Despite reports of failure, the plantation appears to have initially been a success, with a nopalry reportedly numbering in the thousands of cacti, but the venture was neglected after his death in 1780 and ultimately seems to have been destroyed in the turmoils and slave revolts that engulfed the colony after the French Revolution.Thiéry's colorful, but still potentially dangerous, exploits against the Spanish were published in the Voyage à Guaxaca (Oaxaca). Presenting himself in the guise of a botanizing physician searching for remedies in the treatment of gout, he journeyed from Saint-Domingue to Havana where he botanized as he waited for transport to Veracruz. Arriving in Veracruz in January 1777, he quickly endeared himself by identifying the tubers of a locally abundant morning-glory vine, Ipomea purga, as a source of an expensive imported cathartic drug, jalap. Sensing something amiss, however, the viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa ordered him to leave, unwilling "to open to strangers the secrets of the country". Imagining himself a modern counterpart of Jason and the Golden Fleece, he quietly slipped over the ramparts of the city and set out for Oaxaca, source of the best cochineal dyes, claiming to be a Catalan in order to disguise his French-accented Spanish and his dress. There he finally managed to purchase some cochineal insects and cactus pads from the locals.
Adding other valuable commercial plants, such as vanilla pods, the Ipomea purga he had noted in Veracruz, indigo and cotton seeds, all jumbled among the nondescript herbal specimens in his collecting case, he returned to Saint-Domingue. Back at Port-au-Prince, Thiéry started a nopalry in the Jardin du Roi, the botanical garden that he established there, and sent further specimens of his insects and pads to the scientific academy at Cap-Français. With the great success of his adventure he was rewarded with the title of Botaniste du Roi and given an annuity of six thousand livres. He was not to enjoy his new-found status and security for long, however, as he died of a "malignant fever" within two years of his return to Saint-Domingue.Thiéry sought to establish a potentially lucrative commercial industry for the French government in his quest for cochineals. Interestingly, it was Charles Plumier, the botanist who had undertaken three successful missions to the Caribbean about a hundred years earlier and had also been appointed a Royal Botantist for his work, who had definitively proven that the cochineal was an insect from his observations on Martinique. Among the plant specimens Thiéry collected on Hispaniola was also F. triphylla, the first fuchsia discovered and described by Plumier as well. This Thiéry collection is still preserved at the Linnean Society of London. It is in the Society's Smith Herbarium among forty-three other botanical specimens from Saint-Domingue ascribed to him. Undated, it would probably have been collected sometime between Thiéry's return to Saint-Domingue in 1778 and his death at Port-au-Prince in 1780.
(Illustration: 1 & 2. Opuntia ficus-indica and top and bottom views of female cochineals, Traité de la culture du nopal, et de l'éducation de la cochenille dans les colonies-françaises de l'Amérique; précédé d'un Voyage a Guaxaca, 1787; 3. Detail from the dried herbarium specimen identified as F. triphylla and preserved at the Linnean Society of London.)
Thompsonii – Named in honor of Thompson? F. thompsonii (Koehne 1893) is a synonym of F. magellanica (Lam. 1788) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Thymifolia – Having leaves resembling those of the thyme plant (Thymus). See F. thymifolia in ➤ Section Encliandra, of which there are two subspecies.
Tillett, Stephen S. (b. 1930) – Tillet is an American botanist and specialist on the Passifloriaciae family, who collected botanical specimens in Peru and Venezuela. He is associated with the Universidad Central de Venezuela and the Missouri Botanical Garden. Tillett made the first collection a new fuchsia species which is now named in honor as F. tilletiana (Munz 1972). See F. tillettiana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Tillettiana – Named in honor of Stephen S. Tillett (b. 1930). See: Tillet; F. tillettiana in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Tincta – Colored. See F. tincta in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Tinctorium – Indicates that the plant is used in dyeing, or has sap which can stain. See Thilcum tinctorium.Tiret, Horace (1915-2012) – A Certified Public Accountant by trade, Tiret was a prolific American fuchsia hybridizer in San Francisco, California who produced many enduring classics. Perhaps because of the successful accounting firm he established, Tiret was also one of the first hybridizers to protect his crosses from commercial exploitation with plant patents (see also). Starting in 1944, along with another breeder named Clement Schnabel (see also), he grew his seedlings at the La Rochette Nursery of Victor Reiter Sr. & Jr. (see also) because he had no gardening facilities of his own at the time. 'Rubeo' would be his public debut and was well-received when it was sold commercially at La Rochette in 1947. His many noteworthy plants were developed according to his self-described "five-year plan." Tiret's magnum opus was certainly 'Swingtime' (1950), which has became one of the most popular fuchsias of all time. 'Voodo,' released in 1953, is another plant that might also sit at the of any list. In 1954, Tiret was awarded the American Fuchsia Society's Medal of Achievement. In all, he released just under 130 plants from 1947 into the 70's. Among his hybrids are many other names instantly recognized by fuchsia followers:
Amethyst (1941), Desert Rose (1946), Rubeo, Santa Cruz (1947), Ecstasy, Jack Shahan,Sharon, Yuletide (1948), Bouffant, Moth Blue, Red Wing, Ric Rac, Tangerine, Uncle Charley (1949), Don Peralta, Du Barry, Estrellita, La Bianca, Maxine Elizabeth, Stolze von Berlin, Swingtime (1950), Bewitched, Enchanted, Streamliner (1951), Bachelor Girl, Blossom Time,Bridesmaid, Bunker Boy, Lace Petticoats (1952),Coronation, Lady Ann, Spring Shower, Voodoo, (1953), Gay Paree, Miss Frills, Sophia, Yonder Blue (1954), Bali Hi, Georgana, Millionaire, Pio Pico (1955), Carnival, Conspicuous, Papa Blues, Forever Yours (1956), Emberglow, Leeado, Lunado, Sunkissed, Sweet Leilani, Thunderbird (1957), Kernan Robson, Miss Vellejo, Penelope, Waikiki (1958), Angela Leslie, Mama Bleuss, Plum Pudding, Rambling Rose, Raspberry, (1959), Florentina, Great Scott, Leonora, Moulin Rouge, Pink Favorite, Sonata (1960), Adagio, Blue Lagoon, Danny Boy, Diablo, Flair (1961), Cotton Candy, Marty, Uncle Jeff, Uncle Mike, Uncle Steve (1962), Dilly Dilly, Lolita, Pepi, The Madame (1963), Blue Mist, Miss Louise, Royal Touch, San Diego, Tropicana (1964), Kon Tiki, La Neige, Maytime, Sampan (1965), Bora Bora, Kiwi, Maori Maid, Polynesia, Virginia Lund (1966), Crusader, Peachy Keen, Red Knight, Ruth King, The Pheonix (1967), Alfie, Allurement, Shelly Lynn, Tempest (1968), Deana Lebaron, Donna Marie, Gazebo, Pinch Me (1969), Deborah, Elizabeth, (1970), Orange Mirage, (1970) Alice Ashton, Beth Robley, Flavia, Shawnee, The Patriot (1971), Alyce Larson, Joan Helm, Louise Emmershaw, The Jester (1972).
(Illustration: Tiret's USPP No. 1206 listing him as the "inventor" of a new fuchsia. The application was filed in 1949 and granted in 1953. Although the plant is un-named, the patent lists Reiter's 'Titanic' as the female parent and 'Brazier' as the male; the description seems to match 'Sharon'.)
Tomentose – Covered in hairs.
Townsendii – Named in honor of Charles H. T. Townsend (1865-1944), American entomologist who worked in the United States, Mexico, Brazil and Peru. While his primary interest was insects, especially Diptera, he also widely collected plants on his field trips. F. townsendii (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is a synonym of F. ayavacensis (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Trailer – A fuchsia with a lax habit good for growing in hanging baskets or being trained into a standard.
Training – Also termed shaping. See also.
Tree Fuchsia – Common name for F. excorticata in ➤ Section Skinnera, or occasionally, for F. arborescens in ➤ Section Schufia. F. excorticata is also known in New Zealand by its native Maori name, Kotukutuku. There are additionally a number of unrelated plants often popularly, but inaccurately, called "tree fuchsias." See ➤ Faux Fuchsias.
Tribe – A taxonomic rank placed between a family and a genus. In the case of families divided into subfamilies, the tribe lies below the subfamily. In large families, they are occasionally divided into subtribes. The standard ending of tribe names is -eae. Fuchsia is placed in the Circaeeae tribe of the Onagroideae subfamily within the Onagraceae family (see also).
Triphylla – Having leaves in sets of three. Fuchsia triphylla, flore coccineo… (Three-leaved, scarlet-flowered fuchsia…) was the first fuchsia discovered and described by Charles Plumier on Hispaniola in about 1696-97. Plumier's long descriptive name was later shortened to F. triphylla by Linnaeus in accordance with his binomial system. Contrary to what is stated in many references, Plumier does not seem to have sent any actual plant material to be grown in Europe. About 1730, however, Philip Miller (see also) received the seeds of a fuchsia shipped from "Carthagena in New Spain" [sic] from fellow Scotsman and botanist William Houstoun. This fuchsia, identified with Plumier's species, was apparently successfully grown at the Chelsea Physic Garden for a number of years before disappearing from cultivation at some point. Since Miller was head gardener from 1722 to 1771, it's unclear at what date the plant was lost. Unfortunately, no preserved specimen has survived and there is some doubt that it was actually F. triphylla as Houston collected in modern Venezuela, not Hispaniola. Lost for many years, F. triphylla was rediscovered when seeds collected in Haiti in the 1870s for the New York nurseryman, Thomas Hogg, Jr. (see also), were sent to Kew for identification in 1882. Carl Bonstedt (see also) would use it to breed a range of new hybrids in Germany from about 1904 to 1915. See F. triphylla in ➤ Section Fuchsia; Triphylla Hybrids.Triphylla Hybrids or Triphyllas – A group of hybrid crosses between F. triphylla and other species, perhaps primarily F. fulgens and F. boliviana, that closely resemble the trumpet-shaped terminally held flowers and generally upright growth habit of F. triphylla. Many were bred in Germany by Carl Bonstedt (see also) from about 1904 to 1915. Among his hybrids are such commonly grown classics, such as 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt' and 'Thalia.'
(Illustration: Fuchsia 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt.')
Tube – The elongated part of the calyx. Its correct scientific name is the hypanthium.
Tuber – Tubers are enlarged plant structures that store nutrients to help the plant survive over winter or through other seasonally dry months. They provide the plant with both energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next active growing season. Tubers can be formed by plants from both modified stems and roots and should not be confused with rhizomes, which are only formed from modified stems. Some fuchsia species, such as F. pachyrizza or F. apetala, have evolved to develop tuberous roots most likely in response to the harsher ecological conditions of their habitats. See also rhizomes.
Tuberosa – Tuberous. F tuberosa (K.Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. salicifolia (Hemsl. 1876) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Tunariensis – Meaning either from the Cerro Tunari, a volcano in the Tunari National Park, in the Cochabamba Department of Bolivia, or from Villa Tunari (Tunari), a small town also in the same Department. See F. tunariensis in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Type Species – In taxonomy, the species to which a genus is anchored, often the first one described when it was established. In botany, the type species is usually a physical specimen or drawing. F. triphylla is the type species for Fuchsia.USS Fuchsia – Built by Fincourt in New York City during the winter of 1862, the United States Ship Fuchsia was a 98-foot screw-propelled steam tug acquired by the Union Navy in June 1863 for use during the American Civil War. Commissioned in August of 1863, the Fuchsia was commanded by Acting Master W. T. Street. She was assigned to the Potomac River Flotilla for patrol and reconnaissance duty on the Potomac and several other rivers where she was involved in a number of successful missions. She was often fired on by Confederate forces and bravely returned fire. In October 1863, along with the USS Currituck, she captured the steamer Three Brothers on the Rappahannock River of Virginia. With the end of the war, however, the USS Fuchsia was no longer needed. She was decommissioned by the Navy in August 1865 and sold in September of that same year. It's unclear what subsequently became of the ship.
(Illustration: USS Fuchsia, US Government Printing Office, 1897.)
Umbrosa – Shady. F. umbrosa (Benth. 1845) is a synonym of F. loxensis (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Unduavensis – From Unduavi in La Paz Department, Bolivia. F. unduavensis (Munz 1943)is a synonym of F. apetala (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Hemsleyella.
Uniflora – Single flowered. F. uniflora (Sessé & Moç. 1888) is a synonym of F. microphylla (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Encliandra.
University of Leicester National Collection of Hardy Fuchsia – See National Collections (UK).
Upright – A fuchsia, especially a cultivar, that exhibits mostly stiff vertical growth that makes it suitable for growing as a bush or shrub in the ground or in a pot.Vandelli, Domenico (1735-1816) – Vandelli was a noted Italian naturalist and botanist originally from Padua. On the recommendation of Linnaeus, he was brought to Lisbon in 1764 by the great Portuguese reformer, the Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782), to teach chemistry and the natural sciences at the Real Colégio dos Nobres, a sort of preparatory school founded by Pombal to teach the sons of the aristocracy. Unfortunately, his field failed to fully capture the attention of the young aristocrats and he quickly returned to Italy. Pombal lured him back again in 1765, this time to teach at the University of Coimbra, which was being reformed by the Marquês and where Vandelli found a better class of students for his teaching. He was the first director of the Botanical Garden at Coimbra until 1791, when he retired from the University. In 1793 he became the first director of the Ajuda Botanical Gardens in Lisbon. He was also one of the founders of the Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. Vandelli remained in Portugal for most of his long career contributing much with his studies and many publications and holding a number of important positions.Particularly noteworthy was his Florae Lusitanicae et Brasiliensis specimen published in 1788. In it Vandelli describes an interesting new plant called Quelusia without, however, attaching any particular species name to it. While somewhat disoriented by the artist's conforming flowers on the pages to face upwards, the accompanying line drawing is informative and definitely confirms Quelusia as a fuchsia. Neither the drawing of the flower nor the written description, though, really allow for the plant's identification as anything more than a Brazilian fuchsia of some sort. Aiton (see also) attributes the introduction of F. coccinea to Captain Firth from Chile. Salisbury (see also), however, implicates Vandelli. Florae was based partly on the work of the noted Brazillian botanist and secular Jesuit priest, Joaquim Veloso de Miranda (1733-1815), who was born in the town of Inficionado (today called Santa Rita Durão) in Minas Gerais. From a wealthy family of land and mine owners, Veloso de Miranda came to Portugal to study at the University of Coimbra, and later to teach alongside Vandelli, before returning to his native Brazil where he botanized for a number of years. Among the collections sent back to Vandelli might logically have been the relatively rare F. coccinea which is endemic to only a few mountain ridges in Minas Gerais near his home town and base. While the concurrent spread of F. coccinea to areas such as St. Helena and Madiera does additionally seem point to it as the fuchsia behind Quelusia, the entry could as well have been based on a number of other similarly flowered Quelusia section fuchsias, such as F. regia ssp. regia also endemic to parts of Minas Gerais. Vandelli also makes reference to Forster's Skinnera (Forster & Forster 1776), now F.excorticata, in his Florae.
Vandelli's later life would be far from the quiet and studious retirement he probably envisioned. Much of Europe was in turmoil during the Napoleanic Wars (1803-1815) and French armies would invade the Iberian Penninsula to occupy most of Portugal. Moments before the capture of Lisbon in 1807, the entire Portuguese royal family and court (by some estimates up to 15,000 people in all) fled into exile in Brazil with the help of the British Royal Navy. Remaining in Portugal, Vandelli apparently belonged to the liberal, pro-French faction in the country. Against Britain's trade and foreign policies, which had essentially turned Portugal and its colonies into British protectorates, he unfortunately actively collaborated with the French even helping them transfer valuable museum collections, such as the important specimens from Brazil, to Paris. With the gradual defeat of French forces and the arrival of the Duke of Wellington in Lisbon in 1810, the aged Vandelli was summarily deported to the Azores on the frigate Amazona along with a number of others. It was only due to the intercession of his friends at the Royal Society in London, of which he was a member, that he was transferred to exile in England. He was only allowed to return to Portugal in 1815.
(Illustrations: 1. Detail Fig. 10. Quelusia (F. coccinea) from Vandelli's Florae Lusitanicae et Brasiliensis specimen, 1788; 2. Detail from Page 23 starting the treatment of Quelusia. It continues onto page 24.)
Vargas Calderón, Julio (1903/1905-2002) – César Vargas was a Peruvian botanist at the University of Cuzco. He was active exploring and collecting the flora of Peru from 1936-1967. Among his many collections were at least a dozen fuchsia species, including one new to science, discovered in 1936 growing between Yanamayo and Tambomayo in the Cuzco Department of Peru, that was to be dubbed F. vargasiana by Paul Munz (1946). He was intensely interested in the conservation of Peru's wildlife and 143 species in various genera were to be named in his honor. See F. vargasiana in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Vargasiana – Named in honor of Julio César Vargas Calderón (1903 or 1905-2002). See: Vargas; F. vargasiana in ➤ Section Fuchsia.Variegated, Variegation – Plants with leaves that are patched, streaked or edged with white, cream, various shades of green or even red or pink. Some variegations are not stable and the plant will put out normal shoots. These reversions are usually more vigorous that the variegated ones so they should be removed to avoid overwhelming the plant.
(Illustration: 'Tom West.')
Variety or Varietas – In botanical classification, a taxonomic rank just below the level of a species but not as important as a subspecies. Varieties have different appearances but hybridize easily. The name should not be confused with cultivars, or cultivated varieties, as varieties occur naturally. The term may often be used imprecisely by horticulturalists, such as when speaking of "grape varieties." Outside of taxonomy, a plant variety may also have a statutory definition that differs from its botanical one.Veloso, José Mariano de Conceição (1759-1811) – Veloso (also sometimes written as Velloso or Vellozo; in his own style, Joze Marianno da Concepção Vellozo) was a Brazilian priest, teacher of geometry rhetoric and the natural sciences, botanist and plant explorer whose important work, Florae Fluminensis, was only finally and posthumously published in 1825–27 and 1831. Born in São José del Rei (now called Tiradentes) in Minas Gerais, Veloso was the son of José Veloso da Câmara and the cousin of Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, a leader of the unsuccessful Brazilian independence movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira and later a celebrated national hero. As the title of his magnum opus attests, Veloso collected extensively in Rio de Janeiro province until 1790 when he left for Lisbon. He returned to Brazil in 1808 after the royal family and court fled there during the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. According to Thomas Borgmeier (1892-1975) in A historia da "Flora Fluminensis" de Frei Velloso (1937), Veloso first drew Quelusia regia (F. regia) from nature while collecting in the "Pharmacopolitan Alps" (Serra da Bocaina mountain range near Paraty), on the way to Cunha near the São Paulo border with Rio de Janeiro, sometime between 1779-1787. It is illustrated on plate six of the fourth volume of Flora Fluminensis. For Quelusia, see also Vandelli, Veloso de Miranda.
(Illustration: Unpainted plate of Quelusia regia [F. regia], tab. 6 in vol. 4 of the Icones of Florae Fluminensis, 1825-1827.)
Veloso de Miranda, Joaquim (1733-1815) – Veloso de Miranda was a noted Brazillian botanist and secular Jesuit priest who was born in the town of Inficionado (today called Santa Rita Durão) in Minas Gerais. From a wealthy family of land and mine owners, Veloso de Miranda came to Portugal to study at the University of Coimbra, and later to teach alongside Domenico Vandelli, before returning to his native Brazil where he botanized for a number of years. Among the collections sent back to Vandelli, which he used in his Florae Lusitanicae et Brasiliensis specimen (1788) might logically have been the relatively rare F. coccinea which is endemic to only a few mountain ridges in Minas Gerais near his home town and base. (See also Aiton, Salisbury, Vandelli.)
Velutina – Velvety. F. velutina (I.M.Johnst. 1925) is a synonym of F. corymbiflora (Ruiz & Pav. 1802) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Venusta – Beautiful or charming. See F. venusta (Kunth 1823) in ➤ Section Fuchsia. Fuchsia venusta var. huilensis (Munz 1943) is a synonym of F. venusta.
Venation – The pattern of veins on a leaf's surface,
Ventral – The lower surface or underside, especially of a leaf.
Verrucosa, verrucose – Covered in warts; warty. See F. verrucosa, the single species in Section Verrucosa,
Vine Weevil – Otiorhynchus vulgates. The nocturnally-active Vine Weevil will eat small semicircular notches out of fuchsia leaves but this damage is mostly a cosmetic annoyance; the real damage is done after the beetle lays its eggs on the compost and its white grubs start to feed on the plant's roots. Grubs in the pots of a dormant plant can even eat the entire root system if they are carried over the winter in the compost. The slow-moving adults can be located while hunting with a flashlight at night and eliminated. But proceed more carefully in the daytime as the weevils drop down to play dead and might be hard to locate. Their shells are fairly hard so a bit of force is necessary to dispatch them. Biological controls include nematodes. Systemic and appropriately labelled grub control treatments are also effective.
Virgata – Shaped like a rod or wand; straight, long and thin; plants with a habit of straight, erect branches. Fuchsia virgata (Sweet ex Jacques 1834) is a synonym of Fuchsia magellanica (Lam. 1988) in ➤ Section Quelusia.
Vulcanica – From the slope of a volcano; in fuchsias, perhaps, specifically from the slopes of the great Chimborazo, in the Chimborazo Province of Ecuador to which F. vulcanica is native. Chimborazo was once thought to be the highest mountain on earth and held a particular fascination for European explorers. There were several attempts to scale its summit, including one by geographer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt in 1802. It was finally conquered twice in the same year by Edward Whymper: The first time early in 1880 with Louis and Jean-Antoine Carrel and then again later that same year with two Ecuadoreans, David Beltrán and Francisco Campaña, simply to prove to skeptics that he had done it. Édouard André (see also), who discovered and described F. vulcanica (which grows in the region from about 2,500 meters to the tree line at about 4,000 meters) passed by the great mountain, located about halfway between Quito and Loja, on his expedition through Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela in 1875-1876. He journeyed from Tulcán through Quito and Riobamba to Guayaquil on the coast. While there is some evidence that a number of André's specimens were actually collected on commission for him by plant hunters such as the Belgian, Hugo Poortman (1858-1953), who collected much further south in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe Provinces, this doesn't seem to be the case with F. vulcanica as André himself passed directly through the region.
See F. vulcanica in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland at the foot of Chimborazo Volcano. Painting by Friedrich Georg Weitsch, oil on canvas, 1810.)Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823-1913) – One of the most brilliant scientists of the nineteenth century, Wallace was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist, as well as a social activist and proponent of social and economic reform, Wallace quite independently conceived the theory of evolution through natural selection but has long been unfairly overshadowed by the more-famous reputation of Charles Darwin. Initially he braved hardship and danger for four years collecting and exploring in the wilds of the Amazon River basin from 1848, simply leaving his job as a surveyor to make a name for himself in the service of science. In 1854, Wallace set off again for the tropics, braving yet more hardship and danger, such as bouts of malaria and dogs stealing his animal collections, for eight years in the Malay Archipelago.There, he amassed tens of thousand of specimens and even managed to put it all together into a grand picture to identify the Wallace Line dividing the fauna of the archipelago into two distinct halves, the western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion which reflects Australasia. And develop his own theories on evolution and the survival of the fittest. Probably influenced by the hardship and danger of his expeditions, it might seem. Besides being a co-founder of evolution, Wallace is also considered the Father of Biogeography, the study of the distribution of species across the earth and through time. Among Wallace's many other contributions to evolutionary theory is the Wallace Effect, or how natural selection might drive speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization.While the flora of the region doesn't quite follow the same demarcation, the Wallace Line is an interesting observation as Fuchsia was once found in Australia, as evidenced by fossil pollen of the late Oligocene and early Miocene, before the continent drifted too far towards the equator and the genus went extinct. New Guinea, in fact, represents the leading edge of the Australasian continental plate and its highlands still harbor unique remnants of the Antarcto-Tertiary Geoflora that once spread from South America across Antarctica to Austrailia (➤ History of the Fuchsia).Today Fuchsia is only preserved far to the east of the Wallace Line, in New Zealand and Tahiti. While unknown to Wallace, there is a single fuchsia endemic to the mountains of Tahiti, ➤ Fuchsia cyrtandroides (J.W.Moore 1940). Similar to the unique plants of the Galápagos, this fuchsia represents a new species only recently evolved for life on a volcanic island no more than three million years old. Its ancestor was surely carried to Tahiti by birds, like many of the Galápagos plants as well. Wallace was aware of the closely-related tree fuchsias of New Zealand, as part of the rich flora of those islands, and mentions other fuchsias in his writings from time to time. (1)Unlike the independent and socially connected Darwin, Wallace came from a modest middle-class background and supported his scientific work through his writings and the sale of specimens to collectors. In fact, the many specimens he collected during his four years in the Amazon River Basin were intended to fund his research. Disastrously, all was lost on the way to England when his ship caught fire and sank. Fortunately, Wallace was rescued after ten days adrift but his dreams were dashed. For the moment. Seemingly undeterred, he simply regrouped and headed off to the Malay Archipelago.His famous paper on natural selection, jointly presented before the Linnean Society of London with a paper by Charles Darwin in 1858, encouraged Darwin to overcome his hesitations to publish On the Origin of Species. Darwin enjoyed a comfortable life in England which he never again left for parts unknown after his early voyage abroad the Beagle. Having originally been intent on the country clergy, he was only too aware of the fuss that the publication of his theories would cause. Wallace, in contrast, seemed intent on adventure.Ever fearless, Wallace became an ardent defender both of Darwin and the theory of evolution. In his long review of The Reign of Law (1867), written by George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll and a formidable social and scientific adversary of Darwinism, Wallace simply took the Duke to task for being among "that large class who take a keen interest in the progress of Science in general, and especially that of Natural History, but have never themselves studied nature in detail, or acquired that personal knowledge of the structure of closely allied forms,–the wonderful gradations from species to species and from group to group, and the infinite variety of the phenomena of "variation" in organic beings,–which are absolutely necessary for a full appreciation of the facts and reasonings contained in Mr. Darwin's great work." Where Darwin feared to tread, Wallace simply stepped in. (2)Further in his critique, Wallace presses the fashionable fuchsia of English gardens into service, seeing it an illustration of evolutionary forces working close at hand. "When fashion demands any particular change in the form, or size, or colour of a flower, sufficient variation always occurs in the right direction, as is shown by our roses, auriculas, and geraniums; when, as recently, ornamental leaves come into fashion sufficient variation is found to meet the demand, and we have zoned pelargoniums and variegated ivy, and it is discovered that a host of our commonest shrubs and herbaceous plants have taken to vary in this direction just when we want them to do so! This rapid variation is not confined to old and well-known plants subjected for a long series of generations to cultivation, but the Sikhim Rhododendrons, the Fuchsias and Calceolarias from the Andes, and the Pelargoniums from the Cape are equally accommodating, and vary just when and where and how we require them."(Notes: 1. Wallace. Island life: or, the phenomena and causes of insular faunas and floras (1892); 2. Wallace. “Creation by Law”, Quarterly Journal of Science 4 (16), pp. 471-488 (1867). Illustrations: 1. Wallace’s portrait from his book, Natural Selection (1878); 2. “Chief’s house and rice shed in a Sumatran Village”. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 3. “Dyak crossing a bamboo bridge”. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 4. “Orang Utan attacked by Dyaks”. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 5. Map of the Wallace Line running through the Indonesian archipelago dividing Asian and Australasian fauna. Wallace. The Malay Archipelego (1869); 6. Wallace's flying frog, Rhacophorus nigropalmatus, first collected by Wallace and named for him. Illustrated in Wallace's The Malay Archipelago (1869); 7. Four brightly colored members of the Papillo genus. Wallace. “On the Phenomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region”, Transactions of the Linnean Society, Vol. XXV, Tab. 6 (1864); 8.. George Robert Gary. “A List of birds with descriptions of new species obtained by Mr. Alfred R. Wallace in the Aru and Ké Islands”, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 26 (1858); 9. The Wallace face of the Wallace-Darwin medal first awarded by the Linnean Society of London in 1908 on the fiftieth anniversary of the joint presentation of their seminal papers on natural selection.)
Waters, Eileen, and Dave Green – See Aquaviridis.
Web Fuchsia – Within the HTML programing of websites, full magenta is sometimes referred to as web fuchsia. The hex triplet code for both colors is #FF00FF. See also Color Fuchsia.
Weberbaueri – Named in honor of August Weberbauer (1871-1948). Also known as Augusto Weberbauer, he was a German naturalist, botanist and university professor who conducted systematic plant explorations of Peru, as well Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. Among in his many achievements, Weberbauer taught pharmaceutical chemistry and systematic botany at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Peru from the early 1920s until his death in 1948. A wild potato species, Solanum neoweberbaueri, collected by him on Morro Solar, was described in his honor by Ludwig Wittmack in 1914. Fuchsia weberbaueri (E.H.L.Krause 1905) is a synonym of F. sanctae-rosae (Kuntze 1898) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Websites – See ➤ Fuchsia Societies and ➤ Personal Websites for full lists.
Western Fuchsia Species Society – Society devoted to the cultivation and study of species fuchsias. Based in Seattle, it is affiliated with the Northwest Fuchsia Society and maintains display gardens of locally hardy fuchsias at the Center of Urban Horticulture of the University of Washington in Seattle and at Lake Wilderness Arboretum in Maple Valley, Wash. See ➤ WFSS.
Whitefly – Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The whitefly, or sometimes ghostfly, is a very small flying insect usually found feeding on the undersides of leaves. Numbers of these insects will be seen characteristically flying off erratically in a cloud when infested plants are disturbed. The scale-like nymphs also do damage with their feeding and the resulting sugary secretions can encourage the formation of diseases as well. There are a number of treatments, both organic and chemical, to keep whitefly under control.
Wild Fuchsia – Not to be confused with any actual species growing in the wild, "Wild Fuchsia" is an occasionally heard common name for the Australian native, Eremophila maculata. It's perhaps more often referred to in Australia as the "Fuchsia Bush" or "Fuchsia Emu Bush." See Faux Fuchsias; ➤ Faux Fuchsias.Williams, Llewelyn (1901-1980) – Born in Conway, Wales, Williams was an economic botanist, wood technologist, and authority on latex-producing plants for scientific and commercial purposes. He studied at the University of Wales where he specialized in tropical American woods and forest products. In 1928 he did post-graduate studies at the Yale University School of Forestry. During his career he would conduct extensive field investigations in the Amazon and other river basins of northern South America, and later in Africa, Southeast Asia, India, and the Philippines. He held quite a diverse series of positions, starting in 1924 when he was hired to manage a 700-acre tea estate in Assam, India for two years. In 1926 he was appointed dendrologist at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois where he remained for the next 26 years, until 1952, becoming its Curator of Economic Botany in 1938. In 1929, he made a year-long expedition to northeastern Peru and collected over 8,000 specimens for the Field Museum's Flora of Peru project. He also undertook a number of other interesting assignments during his time there, as well as later He worked as a research botanist for the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Venezuela (1938-40 and 1941-42), as a senior field technician for a U.S. government agency, the Rubber Development Corporation (1942-45), to recruit and train rubber-tappers to locate and extract Hevea rubber during World War II, for the Wrigley Chewing Gum Company to find natural sources of gums (1945-55 and 1956-1960), was recruited by the USDA to research the effects of chemical defoliants (1963-1967), and was part of a USDA project to evaluate agriculture and forest resources in the Republic of Dahomey (1966). F. llewelynii, first collected on exposed rocky slopes along the La Ventana road from Chachapoyas to Moyobamba in Amazonas Province, was apparently the only novel fuchsia among the many plants Williams sent back to the Field Museum from his 1929 expedition to Peru. The single collection, "in spite of the broken character of the specimen (due to transport between collecting stations)," was enough for J. Francis MacBride to describe the find and name it in Williams' honor. See F. llewelynii in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
(Illustration: Williams leaving on an unidentified assignment. The Llewelyn Williams Papers, New York Botanical Garden.)
Willowherb Family – See Onagraceae.
Woytkowski, Felicks (1893-1966) – Woytkowski was a Polish botanist, entomologist and explorer who worked in Peru. Drawn by the Amazonian forest, he came to Peru with his wife and young son in 1929 but, due to the Second World War and the subsequent political situation, was not able to return to his homeland until 1964. Putting his thirty-five years in Peru to exceptional use, Woytkowski mounted over sixty expeditions into the Amazon, often in collaboration with such institutions as the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Botanical Garden of the University of California at Berkeley, collecting more than 80,000 specimens representing five thousand species. He was also director of the Botanical Garden of Lima from 1942-1945. F. woytkowskii (Macbride 1941) is now synonymous with F. rivularis subsp rivularis. See F. rivularis in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Woytkowskii – Named in honor of Feliks (Felix) Woytkowski (1893-1966). F. woytkowskii (Macbr. 1941) is now synonymous with F. rivularis ssp rivularis (Macbr. 1940). See F. rivularis in ➤ Section Fuchsia; Woytkowski.Wurdack, John J. (1921-1998) – American botanist. Wurdack received a BS degree in botany at the University of Pittsburgh but was drafted to serve as a sanitary engineer during World War II. In 1946, he was assigned to Parnamirim Air Field in the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil where he collected plants. From 1946 to 1948 he was posted to Japan from where he also visited China. In 1949, he earned a second BS degree in sanitary engineering at the University of Illinois and took a job as technical assistant at the New York Botanical Garden. In 1952, he received his PhD degree, with a dissertation on a revision of the Andean genus Brachyotum (Melastomataceae). Wurdack became an associate curator at the U.S. National Herbarium in 1960, now in the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution, where he later served as curator of botany until he retired in 1991. Wurdack did extensive field work in Brazil, the Guyanas, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, eventually undertaking eleven major expeditions. His speciality was the Melastomataceae family and he published over 180 papers and articles mostly its members. A fuchsia collected by him at Quebrada Molina in the Chachapoyas Department of Peru in 1962 would be described as a new species in his honor by Phillip A. Munz in 1964. See F. wurdackii (Munz 1964) in ➤ Section Fuchsia.
Wurdackii – Named in honor of American botanist, John. J. Wurdack (1921-1998). The type was collected by Wurdak at Quebrada Molina in the Chachapoyas Department of Peru in 1962. See F. wurdackii (Munz 1964) in ➤ Section Fuchsia; and Wurdack.
Yunga, Yungas – The name derives from the word for "warm valley" in Quechua, the language of the Inca. Yungas is mostly a characteristically rainy, humid, and warm forest stretching along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains in Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. It represents a transitional zone between the Andean highlands and the eastern lowland rain forests. There is additionally a difference in definition between Yunga and Yungas. In Peru, for example, Yunga specifically refers to an ecological climate zone divided between the Fluvial Yunga, along the eastern side of the Andes at 1,000 to 2,300 meters above the rain forest, and the Sea or Maritime Yunga, at 500 to 2,300 meters in elevation along their western side. In southwestern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina, the Southern Andean Yungas is a tropical and subtropical moist forest region full of broadleaf evergreens.
Zygote – The cell initially formed when two gamete cells—an ovule (the female gamete) and a pollen or sperm cell (the male gamete)—are joined during sexual reproduction. During the fertilization, the two haploid gamete cells combine into a single diploid cell which now contains DNA from both parents. The zygote continues to develop until it forms a seed from which a new plant can develop. See Pollination.